THE  HISTORY OF FORT RILEY Part 9

[CONTINUED FROM PART 8]

The question of whether or not the Mounted Service School should remain at Riley, or be transferred to some point in the East, was settled during the school year 1915-16 by the War Department with the announcement that it would remain at its present location.

Due to the concentration of troops on the border, one field officers’ course was given and all courses for officers were unavoidably shortened.

The following field officers graduated December 15, 1915: Majors F. H. Beach, R. C. Williams, Captains M. C. Smith,

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 275

H. H. Pattison, H. S. Hawkins, E. P. Orton, T. B. Taylor,

D. T. E. Casteel, T. M. Coughlan, F. T. McNarney, Cavalry, and Major Brooks Payne and Captain Wright Smith, Field Artillery.

The Second Year Class was composed of First Lieutenants

C. Lininger, J. K. Brown; Second Lieutenants E.W. Taulbee,

H. D. Chamberlin, Harding Polk, H. M. Rayner, Cavalry, and Second Lieutenant V. P. Erwin, Field Ar,:tillery.

The First Year Class was composed of the following officers:

  1. Cavalry-Major E. B. Winans; Captains asper Conrad, Aubrey Lippincott, and P. W. Corbusier; First Lieq­

tenants T. H. Cunningham, W. Overton, Norman Davis,

J. A. Mars, R. M. Campbell, G. B.. Hunter, J. M. Wainwright, A. H. Jones, Augustine Robins, E. V. Sumner, Jr., (E. V. Sumner III); Second Lieutenants J. J. Waterman,

C. K. Rhinhardt, DeForest W. Morton, Isaac Spalding, J. E. Lewis, Terry Allen and B. Y. Read.

  1. Infantry-First Lieutenant C. T. Griffith and Second Lieutenants C. F. McKinney and I. T. Wyche.
  2. Field Artillery-Second Lieutenants K. C. Greenwald and R. E. Anderson.
  3. Cuban Army-First Lieutenant Julio Cadenas y Agui­ lera and Second Lieutenant Pedro R. Hiribarne y Guirola (Barney). •

A class for non-commissioned officers was held from October 1st to April 30th. First Sergeant John Dimond and Sergeant Charles Lindsay of the M. S. S. Detachment were members of this class. There was also a special course of three and one-half months for enlisted men from the Front Royal, Keogh and Reno-Remount Depots.

Due to a lack of a sufficient number of public horses at Fort Riley during the year all regular classes for enlisted horseshoers were suspended.

Recommendations were still being made for the construction of an additional riding hall and an isolation stable. Major Rhodes also recommended that the name of the School for Farriers and Horseshoers be changed to the Department of Hippology, the School of Equitation to the Department of Equitation and that the scope of the instruction in swordsmanship be enlarged to include the use of the automatic pistol, particularly in mounted work.

A squadron blacksmith shop (Building 139) was erected in 1916.

276 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

1916 marked the end of the Mounted Service School so far as officers were concerned. The war clouds, which had been gathering for three years, let loose with all their pent up might early in 1917. and while the Mounted Service School functioned with increased activity and turned out many horseshoers and stable sergeants, the last officers’ classes were graduated in 1916.

CHAPTER XIII

THE MOUNTED SERVICE SCHOOL DURING THE WORLD WAR

The story of the rise and fall of Camp Funston, the Medi­ cal Officers’ Training Camp, Army City, and the Cavalry Camp, would all make interesting history, but time and space do not permit a detailed discussion of them in this volume. The story of Camp Funston, named for General Frederick Funston, a Kansan, belongs to the histories of the divisions that trained there and would make a book by itself.

The writer came to Fort Riley November 16, 1917, in company with “Larry” Wyant, Vance Batchelor and “Joe” Lambert, all brand new first lieutenants from the fourth provisional officers’ camp at Fort Leavenworth and all assigned to the Thirteenth Cavalry, at that time commanded by Colonel C. A. Hedekin. Colonel Alexander Rodgers was in command of the Post and Acting Commandant of the School.

The Post was very crowded, as it was throughout the war, and the four lieutenants mentioned above were given quarters in Waters Hall. The writer was assigned to “D” Troop with Daniel J. Keane as Captain and “Stub” (Chester E.) Davis as Second Lieutenant. Some time before this the Thirteenth Cavalry had been split three ways to form the new Twentieth and Twenty-first Regiments. Equipment was scarce, or lacking altogether, and horse exercise was held with bridles, blankets and surcingles.

The Thirteenth was ordered to Texas about the first of December and the writer’s recollections of those few weeks are rather chaotic, it being his first official station and in a very crowded post. The Thirteenth Cavalry Mess was in Arnold Hall, each section of which had a mess at that time. The target range, where the Pump House polo fields are now located, was in constant use by troops from Funston, from morning until night. This was a modified range for trench firing, many of which were in use by the National Arm .

Funston was a huge armed camp, teeming with activity. Street cars ran every few minutes but by the time they reached Waters Hall a seat on the cowcatcher was worth a dollar. Taxis were everywhere, charging whatever they thought the trade would stand, and with their cars never idle. In the mouth of Forsyth Canyon, west of Three Mile Creek, was a Veterinary Camp and Remount Depot. Pawnee came to

277

278 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

life again, after over sixty years of lethargy, when the Cavalry Camp was established. Trains stopped there and it attained the dignity of a station. (The Thirteenth, Twentieth and Twenty-first Cavalry Regiments occupied this camp for a time).

Army City developed just outside the reservation boundary on the Ogden Side. Being close to the camp, it got a great deal of soldier trade. It had paved streets, theatres, business houses and a city government at the height of its prosperity. And it was only very recently, 1925, that it finally went completely out of existence.

The Medical Officers’ Training Camp was a little nearer home, as it was located just east and southeast of the Post Hospital. The present Ninth Cavalry Club was a hospital building and the buildings comprising Godfrey Court were all wards. On both sides of the street on which the open air dance pavilion is located, there was a solid row of buildings. Of course Junction City was booming at a terrific rate. If the newspaper writers of ’85, who wrote columns about the spending of $250,000 at Fort Riley, could have been in the saddle in 1917 and 1918 they would probably have been quite liberally daubed with printer’s ink. Those were the halcyon days for everyone concerned. As Kipling very aptly stated:

“For it’s Tommy this. an’ Tommy that, an’ ‘Chuck ‘im out, the brute!’

But it’s ‘Saviour of ‘is country’ when the guns begin to shoot.”

Colonel Charles D. Rhodes, Twenty-first Cavalry, served as Commandant during the school year 1916-17, in addition to membership on the Cavalry Equipment Board, and from June 25, 1917, on duty with and commanding the Twenty-first Cavalry.

Captain J. C. Montgomery, Twenty-first Cavalry, was Secretary. Captain I. P. Swift was in charge of the Department of Equitation and Captain I. S. Martin was in charge of the Department of Hippology. Captain Ray J. Stanclift,

V. C., was Instructor in Hippology.

Lieutenants Julio Cadenas y Aguilera and Pedro R. Hiri­barne y Guirola. The Cuban Army was authorized to remain at the School to pursue the Second Year Course. They both displayed marked aptitude in their work, and rendered valuable assistance to the school as assistant instructors of the classes for non-commissioned officers. They were recalled by the Cuban Government in February. 1917, but were granted diplomas of graduation.

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 279

The first regular course for non-commissioned officers lasted from October 22, 1916, to February 15, 1917. Owing to the enforced elimination from the Department of Equitation of classes for commissioned officers, it was possible to give both this and the succeeding class of non-commissioned officers excellent mounts. The graduates of the first class were divided into three groups; those who had attained marked proficiency, the proficient and those not proficient. Those who attained marked proficiency were considered suitable as instructors in equitation, horse training, the use of arms, and elementary horseshoeing, hippology, and stable management, in a regimental school for non-commissioned officers. Among this group we find the names of two men who are still on duty at the School; Horseshoer Renzo Dare, M. S. S. Detachment (white) and Private 1st Class Brady D. Price, M. S. S. Detachment (colored).

The proficient group were considered suitable as instructors in equitation, horse training, the use of arms, elementary horseshoeing, hippology and stable management, in a troop or battery. Among that group were Sergeants F. R. Gormley, Lee Johnson and Horseshoer· Grover Stevens of the M. S. S. Detachment (white).

Those not proficient were students who, for some reason, failed to graduate. ‘

The second class, composed of forty-three well selected men, reported February 16, I 917. As a whole, they had made satisfactory progress when, on May 2d, twenty-three of them were ordered to Brigade Schools with a view to their being given temporary commissions. Graduation took place June 22d and among the graduates was Sergeant “Mike” Fody of the Thirteenth Cavalry. During the War and when the writer joined the regiment, Fody was a lieutenant and is now a warrant officer.

About this time, the duties formerly performed by farriers were taken over by stable sergeants. The first regular class of stable sergeants at the School was organized January 3, 1917, and graduated May 31st.

Major W. V. Lusk, Captain R. J. Stanclift and First Lieutenant R. H. Power, V. C., were relieved from duty with the School and ordered to duty elsewhere, due to the increased need for veterinarians with the newly organized regiments.

Master Signal Electrician Sergeant Peter F. Meade, Instructor in Horseshoeing, was appointed captain in the Quartermaster Corps, U. S. R., and relieved from duty with the School.

While many temporary buildings were erected during the years of the War, both in the Post proper and at Funston,

280 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

1916 was the last year in which any permanent buildings were erected at the School.

Colonel C. D. Rhodes was relieved from duty as Com­

mandant November 6, 1917, when Colonel Rodgers became Acting Commandant. Upon· the relief of Colonel Rodgers March 28, 1918, Captain E. W. Suddarth became Acting Commandant.

As Captain Suddarth is the only member of the Mounted Service School Detachment, at present, who has advanced to the position of Commandant of the School. A brief outline of his career may be quite appropriately introduced. The following quotation is from the Annual Report of the Commandant for 191 9, rendered by Colonel Cameron:

“In closing this report, it is considered fitting to testify to the sense of obligation of the Mounted Service School to Major Evan W. Suddarth, U. S. Army.

“After eleven years in the Cavalry service, Sergeant Sud­ darth was appointed first sergeant of the Training School for Farriers and Horseshoers in 1905, and later was advanced to the position of School Sergeant Major with the rank of Master Signal Electrician. At the outbreak of war, he was appointed a Captain, A. G. D., and in November, 1918, was advanced to the grade of Major. Fortunately for the interests of this School. he was retained at Fort Riley, exercising at different times the functions of Secretary, Acting Commandant, and Post Commander. On June 2, 19 I 9, he applied to be restored to his original enlisted grade and was placed upon the retired list.

“A man of exceptional attainments and strong common sense, he rendered most valuable assistance in the early struggles of the school. was instrumental through many years in preserving established policies and traditions and terminated his military career by executive work displaying efficiency and judgment. The best wishes of all graduates of ‘Riley’ go with him.”

Many of the old non-commissioned officers of the Mounted Service School wore shoulder straps with distinction during the World War and many and varied were their experiences. Perhaps the most curious instance was that of Sergeant Charles Mayer now, and for many years before the War, on duty at the Veterinary Hospital, who was given command of a Bakery Company. Nothing daunted them and nothing was too difficult for them and it is only to be hoped that in our next conflict we may have as efficient a backbone of non-commis­sioned officers in our Army as we had in our last. Regimental Sergeant Major Peter F. Greenwaldt of the Second Cavalry, recently deceased, while not directly associated with

‘fHE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 281

the Mounted Service School, was an officer in the Thirteenth Cavalry when the writer joined that regiment in 1917.

In the Annual Report of the Commandant for 1918, we find that Captain Suddarth was Acting Commandant, Secretary and Disbursing Officer, Commanding Mounted Service School Detachment and Personnel Officer.

The following officers were on duty with the School during the year:

Major J. C. Montgomery, Cavalry, was Secretary and Disbursing Officer from May 1, 19 I 6, to October 26, 1917, when he left for Chickamauga Park for duty with the 2d Division.

Second Lieutenant R. W. Neff, Cavalry, was Acting Secretary from October 26, 19 I 7, to November 17th, when he left for Fort Ringgold, Texas, for duty with the Thirteenth Cavalry.

Department of Hippology

Major I. S. Martin was Senior Instructor and in charge of the Department of Hippology from September 18, 19 I 5, to August 25, 1917, when he left for duty with the 89th Division at Camp Funston.

Major D. B. Leininger, V. C., was Senior Instructor and in charge of the Department after September 24, 1917.

Major Ray J. Stanclift, V. C., was an Instructor from July 30, 1914, to September 26, 1917, when he was ordered to duty in the office of the Surgeon General.

Second Lieutenant J. J. Martin, V. C., Instructor, from March 8th to April 5, 1918.

First Lieutenant L. J. Poelma, V. C., Instructor since March 8, 1918.

First Lieutenant W. N. Gaston, V. C., Instructor since March 8, I 918.

Second Lieutenant I. V. Stoll, V. C., Instructor since August 16, 1918.

First Lieutenant H. P. Flowe, V. C., was also an Instructor for a time.

Department of Equitation

Major I. P. Swift was Senior Instructor and in charge of the department from January 29 to August 27, 1917, when he was ordered to join the 86th Division at Camp Grant.

All officers’ courses and the regular course for non-commis­sioned officers were discontinued. The courses for Stable Sergeants and Horseshoers were given.

Four classes of stable sergeants and candidates for that grade (a total of 3 I 2 men) were graduated between August 15, 1917, and August 15, 1918, each course being of three months durati_on. Instruction was carried out according to

282 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

the “Army Horse in Accident and Disease,” until the revised “Manual for Stable Sergeants, 1917,” was received about December 15, 1917.

Four classes of horseshoers, or a total of 261. were graduated in the same period.

The following enlisted men of the Mounted Service School Detachment (white) were on duty as Assistant Instructors in Horseshoeing; Master Signal Electrician Olaf Carlson; First Sergeant J. B. McAleese; Stable Sergeant Renzo Dare; Sergeants Frederick Gormley, Everett Dake, W. M. Huff, John Conklin; Grover Stephens and O’Neil; Horseshoers Wm. Nadeau and G. M. Caldwell. Master Sergeant John Davis was then Acting First Sergeant with the grade of Squadron Sergeant Major.

Major Suddarth was Acting Commandant until January 14, 1919, when he was relieved by Colonel Ben Lear. Special 0-iders No. 125-0, W. D., May 28, 1919, appointed Colonel George H. Cameron as Commandant and relieved Colonel Lear as Acting Commandant.

Major Suddarth was also Secretary from November 16, 1917. to April f3. 1919. when Major Robert M. Cheney became Acting Secretary. He, in turn, was relieved by Major John M. Thompson, who was Acting Secretary from April 30 to July 3, 1919. Lieutenant Colonel H. H. McGee became Secretary on July 4th.

The following were on duty as instructors during the year: Department of Equitation

Lieutenant Colonel John A. Barry was Senior Instructor from April 12 to May 27, 1919, when he was relieved by Colonel Lear and became an Instructor.

Lieutenant Colonel Arthur H. Wilson reported for duty April 19, 1919.

Major Robert M. Cheney, since April 30, 1919. when he was relieved from duty as Acting Secretary.

Major Sloan Doak reported August 13. 1919. . Lieutenant-Colonel Harry D. Chamberlain reported August

16. 1919.

Colonel Berkeley T. Merchant reported August 23. 1919.

Department of Hippology

Major D. B. Leininger. V. C.. was Senior Instructor during the entire year.

Lieutenant-Colonel I. S. Martin reported May 12, 19 I 9. and was Officer in Charge of the Department until July 9th, when he departed on detached service with the Cavalry Team in the Annual Rifle Competition.

Colonel W.W. West, Jr., reported August 21. 1919, and was assigned to duty as Officer in Charge of the Department.

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 283

First Lieutenant W. N. Gaston, V. C., was Instructor from March 8 to September I 9, I 918, when he was relieved for duty with the Veterinary Section of the Medical Officers’ Training Camp ,at Fort Riley.

First Lieutenant L. J. Poelma, V. C., was Instructor from March 8, 1918, to August 6, 1919, on which date he was ordered to report to Camp Funston for discharge.

First Lieutenant Odell Archer, V. C., from March 22, 1919, to May 26, 1919, when he reported to Camp Funston for discharge.

Second Lieutenant I. V. Stoll, V. C., from August 16,

1918, to August 6, 19 I 9, when he reported to Camp Funston for discharge.

Second Lieutenant E. A. Gilmore, V. C., from September 19, I 9 I 8, to June 14, 19 I 9, when he reported to Camp Funston for discharge.

First Lieutenant E. T. Martin, V. C., reported May 3, 19 I 9.

·Captain J. R. Underwood and First Lieutenant J. H. Dorn­blaser, V. C., reported July 26, 1919.

Mr. Frank Churchill, Chief Farrier, Q. M. C., became Senior Instructor of Horseshoeing July 16, 1919, which position he has held since that date.

The Cavalry School was organized in the fall of 1919 and in August, when the annual report for 1919 was rendered, several officers had reported for duty with the new school. Colonel H. S. Hawkins joined August 2, I 9 I 9, for duty as Assistant Commandant. Colonel James S. Parker reported August 4th, for duty as Executive Officer. Lieutenant-Colonel Clarence Lininger reported August 25th for duty as Instructor, Department of Tactics and Administration. Major Joseph P. Aleshire reported August 22d, for duty as Instructor, Department of Tactics and Administration.

There were no classes in equitation from the first of July, 1918, to the 30th of April, 1919. Thirty-three non-com­ missioned officers of Cavalry, Infantry, Field Artillery and Engineers reported for a course May 1st and continued throughout the remainder of the fiscal year.

Master Signal Electrician John W. Dimond was Master of the Sword.

Lieutenant Colonel Barry recommended the construction of the two new riding halls for the use of the School.

Horseshoers and Stable Sergeants Courses were given throughout the year.

Colonel Cameron stressed the point that the School must be devoted exclusively to the training of instructors. He prepared a table based on the newly authorized peace strength

284 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

of the army in which it was shown that any organization would have an opportunity to replace one of its two horseshoers by a graduate from Fort Riley, once in twelve years. Considering the reduction that has taken place since then, probably that estimate should be reduced one-half. Colonel Cameron then stated: “The remedy is most simple. The Training School must be devoted exclusively to the development of qualified instructors. Green men must be trained in the regiment. From among the best of his shoes a regimental commander should select for Fort Riley, one who gives the greatest promise of becoming an expert with tools, a ‘good judge of the preparation of. exceptional feet, and above all, an intelligent demonstrator.

“At the training school. Inasmuch as the material will no longer be raw, the standard can be raised and the course of instruction greatly advanced along lines now fully determined.

* * * * * * * * * *

“Many years ago, realizing the impossibility of training the entire young officer personnel of the mounted services, the school authorities repeatedly impressed upon regimental commanders the necessity of sending to the Mounted Service School as students only such officers as giving the promise of developing into skilled instructors in equitation. This suggestion was disregarded in many cases. But as a rule, in recent years, selection has been very carefully made and from the good material furnished, have been developed by the instructors now at the school. and the qualified Cavalry officers who rendered such excellent service during the recent crisis.”

Upon the departure of the Seventh Division in January, 1921, the First Squadron Second Cavalry, under command of Major Henry W. Baird, was orde·red to Camp Funston as guard. In addition to performing the designated duty the squadron segregated and took care of property scattered throughout the cantonment. On August 16, 1921, the buildings and fixtures of Camp Funston were sold for salvage at a public auction. There were exempted from sale the buildings of the northwest area. These were reserved to meet temporarily the need for barracks and quarters for school troops.

During the fiscal year of 1922, the Post of Fort Riley was ordered to use the coal left on hand at Camp Funston. The coal had been stored on the ground in the open for a year and a half and was mostly slack and dust. The writer well remembers the trials and tribulations of trying to keep the furnace in Quarters 23A alive, with this mixture. 16,000 tons were transported from Funston to Riley by truck in a period of a little over six months.

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December 15, 1921. Major Baird and his squadron were relieved by Troop G Second Cavalry, under command of Captain J. B. Taylor.

The following quotation is from the Report of the Quartermaster at Fort Riley for 1923: “The control of Camp Funston was returned to The Cavalry School by the Seventh Corps Area on December 27, 1922. Troop G Second Cavalry was relieved on March 1. 1923, by Troop F. under command of Captain Callie H. Palmer. Camp Funston is practically dismantled and there being no further obligation to guard property and prevent trespass, Troop F will be returned to the garrison in the near future. Plans are now under way to insure the gradual removal of concrete piers and to generally rehabilitate this important portion of the reservation so that it will once more be available for school requirement.

“During the fiscal year 1923, two auctions of buildings, building material and improvements, except the sewage and water systems, were held. The entire camp is in process of salvage by contractors, and by this office and is expected to be cleared in April, 1924.”

The Report of the Quartermaster for 1924 stated: “Camp Funston has been vacated by the dismantling contractor. During the past fiscal year cement piers, foundations and floors have been removed from approximately 100 acres. It is planned to clean 50 acres yearly until all cement piers, foundations and floors have been removed from the site.”

Today, practically the only evidence of this great war time camp that remains are the two great arches marking the east and west entrances to the camp on the Golden Belt Highway, a sewage disposal plant near the bank of the Kansas River, and a monument or two at various points. Taps blew over Funston for the last time long ago

CHAPTER XIV

THE CAVALRY SCHOOL

At a conference in Washington early in June, 1919, it was decided to create service schools for all arms. Each of these schools was to have practically the same courses of instruction, adapted, of course, to the particular arm of the service to which the school belonged. This scheme was promulgated in General Orders, No. 112, War Department, September 25. 1919, entitled, “Military Education in the Army.” Extracts from this order follow: “3. A most important feature in every phase of instruction will be to teach students the particular art of how to teach others.

* * * * * * * * *

5. The system embraces-

For officers:

  1. Basic cmu·ses at special service schools.
  2. Unit schools.
  3. Advanced courses at special service schools.
  4. General service schools.

* * * * * * * * * *

SPECIAL SERVICE SCHOOLS

“14. The object of the courses for officers at these schools is to develop and standardize the instruction and training of officers in the technique and tactics of their respective arm or service.

* * * * * * * * * *

“16. Basic courses.

“These courses have for their objective to so qualify all officers upon initial entry into the service that they may function intelligently on being assigned to duty with their arm or service.”

The designation, “The Mounted Service School.” was officially changed to “The Cavalry School,” on September 19, 1919.

The personnel of the School during the year 19 I 9-20 was as follows:

Commandant-Colonel George H. Cameron.

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Executive Officer-Colonel James S. Parker until August

I. 1920. Absent sick after that date. Major I. P. Swift, Acting Executive Officer after August 23, l 920.

Quartermaster-Lieutenant-Colonel R. E. Smyser.

Medical Officer-Major John A. Martin, to October 30, 1920. Major L. A. Clary, from October 31. 1919, to February 6, I 920. Lieutenant-Colonel D. ·W. McEnery. Colonel

T. U. Raymond retired June 30, I 920.

Second Cavalry-Colonel E. B. Winans, to November 30, 1919, when he was relieved by Colonel J. S. Winn.

Assistant Commandant-Colonel Hamilton S. Hawkins. Secretary-Captain H. H. McGee to September 9, 1919,

when he resigned and was relieved by Major Robert M. Cheney.

Directors and instructors—-Colonel H. La T. Cavenaugh reported July 29, 1920, and was assigned to duty as Director, Department of Cavalry Weapons.

Lieutenant-Colonel Guy S. Norvell reported August 2, 1920, and was assigned to duty as Director, Department of General Instruction, relieving Lieutenant-Colonel L. A. I. Chapman. Colonel Chapman had reported for duty December 9, 1919. He became· an Instructor in the Department of Tactics upon the arrival of Colonel Norvell.

Lieutenant-Colonel Christian A. Bach reported September

11. I 9 I 9, and was assigned to duty as Director, Department of Tactics. He was on detached service from January 27 to July I 0, I 920, in connection with the preparation of a history of the 4th Division. He was relieved from duty as Director and assigned to duty as Instructor upon the arrival of Lieutenant-Colonel Paul T. Hayne, Jr., August I, I 920.

Lieutenant-Colonel Ben Lear, Jr., was Director of the De­ partment of Horsemanship throughout the year.

Major Clarence Lininger, Instructor, Department of Tactics.

Majors I. S. Martin, J. A. Barry, B. T. Merchant, W. W. West and Sloan Doak, were Instructors in Horsemanship throughout the year. During part of the time they were all on detached service as members of the Olympic Horse Riding Team. .

Major I. P. Swift reported September IO, I 9 I 9, and was assigned to duty as Instructor, Department of General Instruction. Transferred to the Department of Tactics August 6. 1920.

Major A. E. Wilbourn reported October 13, 1919, as a member of the Second Year Class. Retained as Instructor, Department of Horsemanship upon graduation.

288 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

Major W. W. Erwin reported September 15, 1919, and was assigned to duty as Instructor, Department of Cavalry Weapons.

Captain D. B. Leininger, V. C., Instructor, Department of Hippology since September 26, 1917, was relieved August I, 1920.

Major C. H. Jewell, V. C., reported March 18, 1920, and

was assigned to duty as Senior Instructor in Hippology.

Captain J. R. Underwood and Lieutenant J. H. Dornblaser,

V. C., were on duty throughout the year as Instructors in Hippology.

First Lieutenant E. T. Martin, V. C., was an Instructor, Department of Hippology, from May 3 to September 2, 1919. when he was ordered to Camp Funston for discharge.

Major E. W. Taulbee reported September 7, 1919; and was assigned to duty as an Instructor, Department of General Instruction. •

Major H. D. Chamberlain was an Instructor, Department of Cavalry Weapons, throughout the year. He was also a member of the Olympic Team.

Major Joseph P. Aleshire was an Instructor, Department of General Instruction, throughout the year.

Captain J. M. (Tommy) Thompson was Instructor in Physical Training, and Property Officer, throughout the year. Captain J. B. (Jack) Thompson reported September 30,

in 1919, as a member of Troop Officers’ Class and was retained as an Assistant Instructor, Department of Horsemanship, upon graduation.

Captain Karl H. Gorman reported September 25, 1919, as a member of Troop Officers’ Class and was retained as an Assistant Instructor, Department of Horsemanship. upon graduation.

First Lieutenant H. R. Kilbourne reported September 25, 1919, as a member of Troop Officers’ Class and was retained as an Assistant Instructor, Department of Cavalry Weapons, upon graduation.

Mr. Frank G. Churchill, Chief Farrier Q. M. C., was

Senior Instructor in Horseshoeing.

Captain J. E. Hemphill, S. C., was on duty at the School from September 11 to 20, 1919.

Captain A. H. (Jingles) Wilson was an Instructor, Department of Horsemanship, from April 19. 1919, to May 13, 1920, when he was ordered to the U. S. M. A.. for duty.

The following were the members of the Troop Officers’ Class: Captains M. B. Rush, K. G. Eastham, J. F. Davis,

K. H. Gorm.m. J. B. Thompson, F. D. McGee, V. V. Taylor, Calvin DeWitt, L. A. Sprinkle, A. W. Roffe, Harry L. Put-

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 289

flam, E. F. Shaifer, Otis Porter; First Lieutenants V. L. Pad­ gett, T. P. Apgar, G. E. Huthsteiner, L. L. Elzas, T. E. Boudinot, H. R. Kilbourne and C. B. Compton. Captains Joseph Andrews and R. W. Barker of the Field Artillery were also members of this class.

The Basic Class consisted entirely of Second Lieutenants of Cavalry as follows: H. F. Scherer, J. B. Rivers, H. H. D. Heiberg, P. A. Donnally, W. W. Jervey, W. H. Wenstrom, Hugh B. Wadell, J. H. Phillips, J. E. Leahy, F. W. Drury,

V. F. Shaw, P.A. Noel, H. F. T. Hoffman, D. S. Holbrook.

W. D. McNair, W. J. Crowe, C. H. Bryan, J. H. Collier,

V. C. Alevy. G. G. Elms. R. F. Stearley, D. H. Nelson, H.P. Sampson, D. H. Maher, R. J. Merrick, W. J. McEnery, M.A. Fennell, A. S. J. Stovall, D. P. Buckland and F. W. Makin­ ney.

There was also a Second Year Class consisting of Major

B. Y. Read; Captains C. L. Stevenson, C. M. Havercamp,

A. E. Wilbourn, DeForest W. Morton and A. H. Wilson, all graduates of the Mounted Service School. They were given a course designed to make them more valuable as instructors at service schools, or in their regiments. A great deal of their work consisted in the training of young horses specially purchased in Virginia.

Instructors of the Department of Horsemanship and stu­ dents of the Second Year Class were required to take the Troop Officers’ Course in Tactics, in Cavalry Weapons and in some subjects of General Instruction, in order that they might be considered as having taken the course at The Cavalry School as well as at the old Mounted Service School, and also to acquaint them with the working of the new departments, to benefit them by the instruction and to put them in thorough sympathy and harmony with the new curriculum.

The Post had been built for the Cavalry and Light Artillery School with a garrison of twelve troops of cavalry and a six battery regiment of field artillery. In order that the Post might accommodate the fifteen organizations of a cavalry regiment, an enlarged school detachment and an increase in faculty and students, it was necessary that the field artillery contingent be reduced. It was decided that one battalion of horse artillery would be sufficient to demonstrate combined action of the two arms in the work of the School. However, there was no artillery at the School until 1923.

The following quotation is from the report of the Assistant Commandant: “However, on account of the small number of instructors available for the three departments other than Horsemanship, it was impossible to assign to any one of these three departments a number of instructors for

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work in that department only. The six available instructors were therefore grouped under one head to teach the subjects of the three departments of Tactics, Cavalry Weapons and General Instruction. This is the most economical arrangement in any case. The instruction was thus carried on under two broad heads, viz: Military Art and Horsemanship.

The Troop Officers’ Course was so arranged that the students devoted half their time to the Department of Horsemanship and half to the other departments. Colonel Lear was of the opinion that, “Only officers giving the promise of developing into instructors of horsemanship and tactics, should be detailed to take the course. Efficient service in regiments should be recognized and rewarded by selection for detail at The Cavalry School.”

In the Basic Course two hours per day was devoted to equitation and horse training with additional time for hip­pology, horseshoeing, stable management and harness and transportation.

Two classes for stable sergeants and two for horseshoers were held during the year. Equipment for a saddlers’ class was obtained but due to lack of accommodations for the students no class was held.

By direction of the War Department, a team, to be entered in the riding events at the Olympic Games at Antwerp in September, I 920, was trained at Fort Riley. Major B. T. Merchant acted as trainer for the team candidates. The team as finally selected consisted of Majors W. W. West, I. S. Martin, B. T. Merchant, H. D. Chamberlin, Sloan Doak,

J. A. Barry, V. P. (Little Red) Erwin, and K. C. Greenwald, the last two being field artillery officers. Colonel W. C.

Short joined the team at Hoboken, as Commanding Officer, and Dr. D. H. Mallan, as Veterinarian. Sergeant J. B. Mc­ Aleese accompanied the team as Stable Sergeant and Horse­ shoer. Major J. W. Downer and Captain H. T. Allen, Jrwas added to the team from the American Forces in Germany. Among the horses were Nigra, Miss Amory, Black Boy, Deceive, Chiswell, Sin Glen, Harebell, Sandy, Joffre, Jack Snipe, Moses, Rabbit Red, and Raven. The story of this team was very ably written by Major Merchant, for the 1921 Rasp.

Recommendations were made for the construction of two additional riding halls, rebuilding Stable No. I, a quarantine stable, and enlarging the veterinary hospital. In recommending the rebuilding of Stable No. l, it was stated that this stable was erected in 1869. As we have seen, this is the only one of the original stables remaining and was erected in 1855.

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The School was not ready to commence the course in Tactics until January 1st. Problems, conferences and lectures had to be prepared and approved. Colonel Bach was the only instructor who had had training in a tactical school. A school for instructors was established under the personal direction of Colonel Hawkins. At first this school was conducted at night and in addition to other work.

The subject of Field Service Regulations was taught to members of the Basic and Troop Officers’ Classes alike. The course in Minor Tactics was an amplification and application of the one in Field Service Regulations. In it the conferences and lectures were given application to concrete situations, and during the months of March, April. May and June, work was done out of doors in the solution of problems similar to those previously solved on the map. Both the Troop Officers’ Class and the Basic Class were given the same map problems through the series which employed forces no larger than a troop. The Troop Officers were then given Part II problems to include the handling of forces as large as a squadron, or regiment, on the map. The outdoor problems assigned to Basic students involved no forces larger than a troop, while for those taking the Troop Officers’ Course, all the outdoor problems employed forces to include the squadron, or regiment.

Instruction in Field Fortifications was given to the Troop Officers’ Class during the period, February 28-March 23, and to the Basic Class, March 22-April 5.

Infantry and Cavalry Drill Regulations were a part of the Basic Course only.

A six day practice march and tactical ride for members of the Troop Officers’ and Basic Classes was held June 14-19. The student officers were organized into a provisional troop, the officers of which were detailed daily. All student officers cared for their own animals and equipment. Shelter tent camp was made each night. A series of tactical problems involving commands from a squad to a regiment were solved in the form of tactical rides, with practical demonstrations in the use of patrols and in liaison. Practical instruction in the use of march schedules, preparation and issue of orders, camp expedients, administration and care of animals. was given daily. The total distance marched was 100 miles.

In addition to this practice march, a patrolling exercise was carried out by the members of the Second Year Class, led by Major Merchant. The patrol was required to ride over a route of I SO miles in three days. In addition to riding and caring for their horses, each student was required to make an accurate report, under various heads, of the country traversed.

292 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

The quotation is from the report of Colonel Hawkins: “This was the first long distance ride attempted by the School and some valuable data was obtained as to marching methods, effect on horses, and other matters. By means of these marches and studies on this subject, it is hoped to develop skill in marching cavalry.”

The course in Musketry for Basic Officers covered 70 hours and for Troop Officers 34 hours. 44 hours were devoted to the machine gun and automatic rifle. 94 hours was devoted to the use of the saber by the Basic Class as follows: Point Fencing, dismounted, 60 hours; Saber Fencing, dismounted, IO hours: Saber, mounted, 24 hours. In the Troop Officers’ Course less time was devoted to dismounted instruction and slightly more to mounted work. Total time, 38 hours. 50 hours was spent by the Basic Class in dismounted practice with the pistol and 35 hours to mounted practice. The Troop Officers spent 39 hours at dismounted practice and 20 hours mounted.

In the Department of General Instruction the following courses were given to Basic Officers only: Military Courtesy and Customs ( 4 hours), Military Hygiene (22 hours), Administration (37 hours), Mess Management (58 hours), Military Law (44 hours), Rules of Land Warfare (6 hours), Interior Guard Duty ( 6 hours) , Leadership and Discipline ( six lectures), Training Methods (twelve lectures). In addition, both classes took a course in Riot Duty consisting of eleven lectures and a written review, and a course in Map Reading and Sketching, to which the Basic Class devoted 60 hours and the Troop Officers 32 hours.

Two hours per day, from June 21 to June 30, were devoted to instruction in Physical Training.

Captain W. A. Snow, C. of E., was Instructor in Pioneer Duties and Demolitions. Captain Snow was on duty at the Post engaged in construction of the present Engineer Bridge, which was built largely with material brought from abroad after the World War. He also assisted in giving the instruction in Field Fortifications.

The present Academic Building was taken over by the School during this year, having been used as a barracks prior to that time.

The Graduating Exercises at the end of the year were very simple and consisted of two competitions. The cup presented by the American Remount Association for the best trained remount was won for the first time by Captain K. G. Eastham on Rebecca. This cup and the Patton Cup for fencing, were the only prizes offered.

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The Patton Cup was first offered by Major George S. Pat­ ton, Jr., in 1913, for proficiency in dismounted fencing. At that time two cups were given, one to the officers’ class and one to the non-commissioned officers’ class.

Colonel Cameron was Commandant, Major Swift, Executive Officer, Colonel Hawkins, Assistant Commandant and Major J.. M·. Thompson, Property Officer, throughout the school year 1920-21. Major C. P. Stearns became Secretary, September 27, 1920.

Department of Tactics: Lieutenant-Colonel Hayne was relieved as Director, January 26, 1921, by Colonel Cavenaugh. The following were Instructors: Col. W. S. Valentine (after Feb. 26, 1921), Col. C. A. Romeyn (after Feb. 7, 1921), Col. John P. Wade (Feb. 25 to July 1, 1921), Lt.-Cols.

L. A. I. Chapman and C. Lininger ( throughout the year) , Lt. Col. C. A. Bach (relieved Jan. 26, 1921), Maj. H. R. Smalley (after Nov. 2, 1920), Maj. H. T. Aplington (after Nov. 22, 1920), Maj. R. E. McQuillin (after Feb. 8, 1921), Maj. V. V. Taylor (after Feb. 21, 1921), Maj. T. H. Cunningham (Nov. 3, 1920, to April 15, 1921), Maj. J .M.

Wainwright (Oct. 24, 1920, to Jan. 30, 1921). Capts.

W. T. Bauskett, H. A. Myers, W. B. Bradford, and Brock Putnam reported as Assistant Instructors, July I, 1921.

Department of General Instruction. Lieutenant Colonel Norvell was relieved as Director by Colonel Kirby Walker, January 28, 1921. Maj. J. P. Aleshire and Capt. T. E Boudinot were Instructors throughout the year. Maj. E. W. Taulbee was relieved Aug. 24, 1921. Capt. W. R. Irwin reported July 1, 1921, as an Assistant Instructor.

Department of Cavalry Weapons. Colonel Kirby Walker became Director upon the transfer of Colonel Cavenaugh to the Department of Tactics. Maj. W. W. Erwin and Capt.

H. R. Kilbourne were Instructors throughout the year. Maj. Guy W. Chipman reported Aug. 30, 1920, and Maj. W. M. Grimes, Jan. 24, 1921.• Maj. I. S. Martin was relieved July 2, 1921.

Department of Horsemanship. Lieutenant-Colonel Ben Lear was relieved as Director by Major John A. Barry, July I, 1921. The following were Instructors throughout the year: Majors W. W. West, Sloan Doak, A. E. Wilbourn, H. D. Chamberlin, J. B. Thompson. Major Cheney was relieved July 16, 1921. Major Merchant, July 15, 1921, and Major Gorman, July I, 1921. Captains T. McF. Cockrill, L. A. Shafer, F. L. Carr and First Lieutenant R. C. (Tony) Winchester reported as Assistant Instructors July I, 1921.

Lieutenant-Colonel R. E. Smyser was Quartermaster and

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Lieutenant-Colonel Llewellyn P. Williamson was the senior medical officer.

Major J. H. Gould, V. C., reported Dec. 23, 1920, and Major C. H. Jewell was relieved Feb. 12, 1921. First Lieutenant J. H. Dornblaser was on duty throughout the year. Capt. J. R. Underwood was relieved Oct. 2, 19.20, and 1st Lieutenant Irby Pollard reported Oct. 1, 1920.

Colonel J. S. Winn continued in command of the Second Cavalry.

A four months’ course for field officers was given beginning March 1st. The class was composed of the following officers: Col. A. M. Miller, Lt.-Cols. G. H. Baird, G. W. Biegler, John Cocke, W. M. Connell, W. J. Kendrick, W. J. Scott,

T. L. Sherburne; Majs. Robert Blaine, H. H. Broadhurst,

R. M. Campbell, George Dillman, J. T. Donnelly, K. B. Edwards, Oscar Foley, Walter Goodwin, E. R. Harris, P. J. Hennessey, A. G. Hixson, E. A. Keys, W. W. Overton, J. C. Pegram, D. R. Rodney, D. D. Tompkins, S. W. Winfree,

J.P. Yancey and Majs. H. L. C. Jones and E. R. Van Deusen of the Field Artillery.

The Troop Officers’ Class was composed of Majs. J. F. Richmond, John Kennard, C. L. Clifford; Capts. W. Barott,

J. Bohn, W. Bauskett, W. Bradford, T. Cockrill, J. Cunningham, F. Carr, H. Fitzgerald, E. Harmon, W. Irvin, J. Minton, H. Myers, Frank Nelson, B. Putnam, D. Sears, L. Shafer, A. Thayer, H. Tobin, C. Unger, W. S. Wadelton, H. Watkins, Rex Willoughby, H. Maas, F. Whittaker, C. Wharton; 1st Lieuts. K. Broaddus, R. C. Winchester. Captain E. W. Mc­ Caskey, Inf., was also a member of this class.

The Basic Class consisted of 145 officers and only the last name is given in the list that follows: Capts. Becker; Beylard, Blankenship, Boykin, Buford, Cameron, Collins, Cox, Creel; Cullinane, Dukes, Falin, Featherstone, Gregory, Halstead, Hamby, Hi.ll, Hurt, Kilian, Mauger, MurI?hY, Norton, Pea­ body, Petty, Pulling, Regnier, Richmond, Robertson, Shea, Shoemaker, Smith (G. I.), Stafford, Strong, Voigt,- Vollers, Wadelton (T. D.), West (E. S.), Wright; 1st Lieuts. Ager, Amazeen, Anderson, Bang, Barnum, Blaik, Browne, Burkart, Byers, Carr, Carter, Castor, Clendenen, Conrow, Crawford, Culton, Durst, Edmunds, Edwards, Ellmaker, Engerud, Fake, Forsyth (A. E.), Fudge, Fulton, Gagne, Gaw, George, Gil­ bert, Graban, Greene, Greenlaw, Greeg, Gregory (E. S.), Hale, Hamilton (F. L.), Hamilton (W. L.), Hammond, Hart, Higgins, Hine, Hodes, Hoge (K. G.), Hunn, Johnston, Jones (G. B.), Judge, Lake, Maddox, Martin, McBlain (son of the former postmistress), McCormick, McDonald (W.), McElroy, McMillan, Mears, Miller, Mitchell, Mobley, Mudge, Murphy,

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Nettleton, Pitts, Powers, Randles, Rawlins, Read, Rehm, Rey­ bold, Richardson, Rudolph, Russell, Sampsell, Sand, Sawtelle, Schick, Sears, Schneider, Shallene, Sharrar, Sheehan, Shomber, Smith (L. G.), Smith (L. N.). Snyder, Speck, Stauffer, Steiger, Strader, Sullivan. Sutton, Taney, Thayer (B. G.), Thomas (B. A.), Thorton, Wahl. Walker, Ward, Whitehead, Willis, Withers, Wofford, Wyman, Yerby.

A National Guard Class composed of Major Colley (Wyomina), Capt. Kennedy, Columbus, Tull (Texas), Blasdel (Utah); 1st Lieuts. Glover, Taylor, Dannenbaum, Coel. Thomas (Texas) and Lowry (Wisconsin), was hdd from September 1 to November 30, 1920.

Another class was held from March I to May 31. 1921. consisting of Capts. Alderdice (Texas), Bowman. Motz (N. C.), Cherbonnier (Wis.). Jones (Kan.), Wood (Mich.); 1st Lieuts. Baird (R. I.), Berry (N. J.), Burke (Ill.), Crail (Iowa), Edwards (Wyo.). Funk (Ohio). Gassman (Texas), Kopf (N. Y.); 2d Lieuts. Brill (Idaho), Crosthwaite (Wash.), Curry (Mass.).

There were a total of 232 student officers in attendance during the year. The serious problem of quarters for married officers of the basic course was met by the surrender to The Cavalry School of the wooden buildings, now known as God­frey Court. of the Convalescent Center of the Camp Hospital. Camp Funston. These buildings were of a superior type of construction and by the addition of suitable partitions were converted into very comfortable apartments with bath rooms and steam heat. For about three years this group of buildings was known as East Flats, until the name was changed to Godfrey Court in honor of General E. S. Godfrey. ” The bachelor officers of the basic course lived in Building 90. now occupied by Battery A, Ninth Field Artillery.

The Field Officers’ Course was designed to equip cavalry field officers for higher command in their own arm and included refresher work in horsemanship, care of animals, practical demonstrations of musketry and employment of troops. The candidates for the School of the Line felt, however, that this course should be essentially a preparation for the course at Fort Leavenworth. The solution of map problems and tactical rides were the only parts of the course that appealed directly to those officers. The fact that the course was not primarily preparatory to the course at Leavenworth was emphasized in the reports of Colonel Cameron and Colonel Hawkins.

The sudden enlargement of the School caused every Instructor to work a little harder and for longer hours.

The courses given by the Department of General lnstruction

296 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

were as follows: To the Basic Course only; Military Courtesy and Custom, Administration, Military Hygiene and First Aid, Military Law, Rules of Land Warfare (cut from five lectures to three), Athletics and Mass Games. The course in Athletics and Mass Games was designed to give the young officers a working knowledge of the methods of instruction to be used in their organizations. No theoretical instruction was given in interior Guard Duty, but officers of the Basic Class were detailed as Officer of the Day and Officer of the Guard at Fort Riley and Camp Funston and received practical i_nstruction in this manner. Courses in Map Reading and Sketching, Riot Duty, Leadership, and Discipline, and Training Methods, were given to all classes. Mess Management was studied by the Troop Officers’ and Basic Classes.

The subject of Pioneer Duties was transferred to this Department from the Department of Tactics and was given to the Troop Officers’ and Basic Classes. Evacuation of Sick and Wounded Men and Animals was the name of a course given to the members of the Field Officers’ Class. It consisted of six conferences and two map problems. This year also saw the beginning of the present splendid course in History given at the School. Colonel Walker prepared a course of nine lectures devoted to the employment of cavalry in Europe, Palestine and Mesopotamia during the World War. Much of the credit for the present History Course belongs to Colonel Walker, who spent many hours of research in the preparation of the pamphlets now available.

Marksmanship and Musketry were separated. Rifle Marksmanship, 1920, was followed very closely by Basic Section “A”, made up of graduates of West Point. The remainder of the Basic Class were late in arriving and only completed the preparatory exercises. The courses in Musketry, Machine Gun and Machine Rifles, Pistol and Saber, were given to all classes.

There were no material changes in the courses given by the Departments of Horsemanship and Tactics.

Two classes of Stable Sergeants and two of Horseshoers graduated during the year. Major Everett Collins, Officer in Charge of this school, made the following remark in his report: “In view of the fact that marines attending this school are not subject to discipline as are other members of the class, it is recommended that no more be ordered here unless they can be placed upon the same status as are other students.”

Detention Camp No. 2, located on Republican Flats between the bend of the river and Sherman Heights, just south of Sherman Heights, was repaired and put in condition for use

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as a Camp of Instruction for· the National Guard of Kansas. The Rasp was revived in 1921 and published by the following editors: Richmond, Bauskett and Gregory. Colonel Cameron, in the Introduction, referred to the original Rasp of 1911, which was intended ·merely as a souvenir of the school year and expressed gratification that the 1921 Rasp was designed along the same lines. He believed that purely technical and professional articles were out of place in the Rasp. Since this time the Rasp has been published each year and has followed that general policy.

One of the most important social events of the year was the marriage of Captain Buckner M. (Buck) Creel to Miss Margaret Hughes Cameron, daughter of the Commandant.

The American Remount Cup was won in 1921 by Captain

R. E. Willoughby on Warrenton and the Patton Cup for dis­ mounted fencing was won by Major J. F. Richmond.

Brigadier-General Malin Craig became Commandant of The Cavalry School, September 1, 1921.

Major V. V. Taylor was Executive Officer until Oct. 15, 1921, when he was relieved by Lieutenant-Colonel Douglas McCaskey.

Major A. T. Colley was Secretary until June 10, 1922. There were no changes in the offices of the Assistant Com-:

mandant, Supply Officer, Surgeon, or Property and Mess Officer.

Department of Tactics. Colonel H. La T. Cavenaugh was Director until June 10, 1922. The Instructors were Colonels Valentine and Romeyn; Lieutenant-Colonels Oliver, Beck, Chapman and Lininger; Majors Smalley, Aplington, Mc­ Quillin and Taylor; Captains Bausket, Myers, Putnam and Bradford.

Department of General Instruction. Colonel Kirby Walker was Director and the Instructors were Major Aleshire, Captain W. R. Irvin and Captain Boudinot.

Department of Cavalry Weapons. Lieutenant-Colonel Aubrey Lippincott was Director. The Instructors were Majors Erwin, Chipman and Grimes and Captain Kilbourne.

Department of Horsemanship. Major Barry was Director. The Instructors were Majors West, Doak, Wilbourn, Cham­ berlin and Thompson and Captains Cockrill, Shafer, Carr and Winchester.

Major Gould was Veterinarian and his assistants were Lieutenants Shinn. Pollard and Dornblaser.

Colonel John S. Winn was in command of the Second Cavalry until May 3, 1922. Colonel C. A. Romeyn assumed command of that regiment upon completion of the school year.

298 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

Machine Gun Troop No. It was organized at Fort Riley in September, 1921. The officers were Captain David E. Cleary, First Lieutenants Paul McD. Robinett and Douglas Cameron.

Company A. Ninth Enginee·rs, under Captain L. C. Gordon

and Lieutenant Montgomery, arrived late in the fall of I 921. It had marched from Texas.

. The 16th Observation Squadron and the 9th Photo Section also came to the School in I 921. Major C. L. Tinker was in command. Other officers were: Captains “Tom” Boland, C. C. Way, F. C. Venn (Flight Surgeon); First Lieutenants B. F. Griffin and J. B. Barriger. First Lieutenant Bob

E. Nowland was in charge of the 9th Photo Section.

All of these units have been of great benefit to the School. They exemplify in a practical manner the co-operation which exists between them and the cavalry.

The Field Officers’ Class was in attendance from February I to June 15, 1922, and was composed of the following officers: Cols. G. F. Hamilton and A. V. P. Anderson; Lt.­ Cols. H. N. Cootes, A. B. Coxe, 0. A. McGee,· 0. W. Rehorst, A. F. Commiskey, A. S. Perkins, C. F. Martin,

J. T. Sayles, C. E: Hathaway, S. D. Maize, C. A. Dougherty,

I. S. Martin; Majors H. S. Dilworth, Levi Brown, T F. Van Natta, A. N. Milton, G. B. Hunter, I. P. Swift, A. W. Holderness, J. G. Quekemeyer, H. W. Baird, H. M: (Si) Groninger, Butler Briscoe, F. W. Whitney (transferred from T. 0. Class in March), P. L. Thomas, W. A. Fair, K. E. Linderfelt, L. P. Stover (the last three transferred from

Basic Class in February), R. I. Sasse and \V. P. Draper (0. R. C.)

The following were members of the Troop Officers’ Class: Majors R. C. Rodgers, ..Mike” Hall. C. P. Steuns, “Eddie” O’Conner, F. C. V. Crowley, “Paddy” Flint, J. T. McLane.

J. D. Kelly, C. V. Simpson, J. B. Coulter, J. P. Wheeler. “Bobbie” Annin, D. G. Morrissett, C. C. Benson, Fred Herr,

G. L. Holmes, Harry Pendleton. J. F. Stevens, T. L. Mart”n (Inf.), G. S. Andrew: Captains Spencer, Townsend, R.R. D. McCullough, Frank Ringland, W. G. Simmons, J. C. Mulle-. nix, W. E. Buchly, “O’.Iie” H:iincs. J. R. Finley, W. T. Bals. Rin:ildo Coe, Renn Lawrence, W. G. Ingram, “Sammy” Fuller, Otto Trigg, Charles Gerhardt, R. W. Carter, J. W. Weeks, Clyde Pickett, “Jimmy” Shelton, “Tony” Bacon, Kent Lambert, Fred Duggan, R. B. Skinner, Jack Hettinger, Dirk Van lngen. A. B. C. Smith, Dwight Hughes, “Larry” Wyant, L. A. Maury, Percy Haydon. G. X. Cheves, D. R. Dunkle (Dunk), “Stub” Davis. H. G. Paullin, Jack Irving, Callie Palmer, “Walt” Cox, Gerald Fitzgerald, J. N. Merrill.

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W. F. Pride; First Lieutenants P. McD. Robinett, H. A. Sears

A. D. C., with H. P. Hirabarne and J. D. Torrens of the Cuban Army.

The following officers were members of the Basic Class in

addition to the three majors previously mentioned who transferred to the Field Officers’ Class: Captains Wise, Marx, Walker, Haldeman, Jones (Catesl;,y ap C), Speed (Q. M. C.), Saportas, Patterson, Kaefring, Burkett, Meade (Chicken), Branson, Sands, Morledge, Russell, Nelson, Olsen, Berg, Richardson, Newman, Sawyer, Forsythe, Latimer, O’Keefe, Jackson, Gerfen, Ward, Byrne, Campbell, Sanders, Bryant, Garity, Knowlton; First Lieutenants Ireland, Bell, Bethel. Godson. Fenn, Hudson, Mewshaw, Thornburgh, Johnson, Child, Schjerven, Kemp, Healy, Knight, Stutsman, Burch. Thomas, Bratton, Page, Darrell, Wilson, Patterson, Mc­ Laughlin, Fletcher, Clayton, McChesney, Aiken, Spear (Q. M. C.), Koch, Eichelsdoerfer, Comfort, Cooley, Jennings, Martin, Marcus, Rapp, Sells, Whelen, Williams.

The National Guard and Reserve Officers’ Class was in attendance from September 15 to December 15, 1921, and the members were as follows: Major McGee and 2d Lieut. Johnston (Texas), Captains Brettel and Goheen (Penn.), Capt. Carter (Ala.), Capt. Dyer (Tenn.), Capt. Miller (N. J.), Capt. Thornton (Conn.), Capt. Hart and 1st Lieut. Lotz (Wis.), Capt. Swan (N. C.), 1st Lieut. Bower and 2d Lieut. Shields (0.), 1st Lieut. Martin (Ga.), 1st Lieut. Hancourt (R. I.), 2d Lieut. Roche (Idaho), 2d Lieut. Zwicker (Mass.). Maj. Wozencraft; Capts. Hay and Murphy (0. R. C. ).

In addition to the above, there was a Special Course for

General Officers given for Brig. Gens. Johnson Hagood and Joseph C. Castner. This course lasted for about two months. It consisted of a course of reading and study, listening to conferences, personal conversation with Instructors and Directors and a brief refresher course in horsemanship.

An intensive course for machine gun specialists was given from June 12th to 29th. Forty-two students, made up of Instructors and officers from the Field Officers’, Troop Offi­ces and Basic Classes, completed the course.

The Commandant, under “Commendations,” paid tribute to various members of the Staff and Faculty, among them Mr. Bowman, “Mr. Ellis R. Bowman, W. O., who’s devoted service at Fort Riley, in the interest of The Cavalry School for 16 years is a matter of general knowledge.”

Since the World War, Mr. J. C. Hahn, Warrant Officer, formerly in the office of the Secretary and now in charge of the Book Department, has contributed much to the efficient

300 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

working of the various academic departments by his zeal and conscientious efforts. Working overtime meant nothing to Mr. Hahn. He has had the welfare of The Cavalry School as his constant guide and while his service here has not been as long as that of others already mentioned, it has been as important and as far reaching in its results.

In the Department of Tactics the course, for each class, consisted of a number of recitations and tests in Cavalry Training, six conferences, three demonstrations, a test and a map problem in Liaison. The remainder of the course varied somewhat for each class. The amount of instruction given the Field Officers’ Class was nearly double that of the previous year. A study of staff work within the brigade and lower units was given for the first time. The course in Field Fortifications was transferred to the Department of General Instruction.

Supplementing the theoretical work in Cavalry Training, the practical application of the drill was taught by organizing the classes into squads and during mounted periods out of doors much time was spent at drill. While the instructors were usually from the Department of Horsemanship, it was Colonel “Ham” Hawkins who impressed upon one and all the simplicity and flexibility of the then new drill. We became especially proficient at “bringing order out of confusion.” One afternoon, while drilling at a gallop, Jack Stevens’ horse fell in a shell hole on Harvey Hill, causing the major to be laid up with a broken arm.

Many memories of those busy, but happy days, come to mind as these lines are written-the many times that Colonel Hawkins approached the blackboard, pipe in hand and with a few sketchy lines to illustrate his story, told us of Corporal Morris, Lieutenant Alstetter, and others in the Philippines, border patrols, Carrizal, Columbus, and a hundred other incidents illustrating the axiom that, I am sure, none of us have ever forgotten: ” A small isolated cavalry command that dismounts to fight on foot is either lost, or accomplishes nothing.” Colonel Lininger with his stories of Wilson and Colonel

L. A. I. Chapman (deceased), one of the most interesting lectures the school ever had, who illustrated all tactical principles with text from the Scriptures (Moses, the Lord’s Chief of Staff, was a favorite). The fall afternoon when we took our jumpers out without stirrups and for an hour and a half “Stub” Davis and Chaumont galloped madly in large circles around Harry’s platoon. The practice march when I, as platoon leader, took the gallant “Second” out and we all, including Major Wilbourn, were lost for half a day. The night ride when Colonel Harry Cootes rode out of No. 2 Stable

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singing, at 10:00 p. m. on a white horse, I believe M. P. or Dodge, and came back at 7: 00 a. m. the next morning, still singing. The time Colonel Cootes was buried in effigy by Palmer Swift and John Barry. Godfrey Court and the delights of being student mess officer. Johnny Walker Morledge and the time the wind blew kiddie-koop and Johnny off a second story porch, but Johnny was picked up intact. The time “Sawdust Jawn” asked me if I knew the names of all the horses in my platoon. I replied that I did not. “Jawn” asked me when I expected to know them and I modestly admitted that I didn’t even know that. Jack Hettinger and myself helped Sporty Fuller to mount Lorraine, one of the largest horses the school has ever had. The Field Officers’ Frolic. The time General Pershing decorated “Ike” and Colonel Oliver with the D. S. C. and D. S. M., respectively. “Paddy” Flint and his performing squad. Their periods of “intense activity.” Harry Pendleton’s finish of his walk to Manhattan and back in a day. Percy Haydon and his un­ trained bicycle. These and many other memories come to mind but, like the newspaper that “Prints all the news that’s fit to print,” we must stop somewhere.

The Department of Horsemanship that year was undoubtedly one of the strongest that has ever been assembled

at any school. before or since. Majors Barry, West, Doak and Chamberlin formed a combination that would be hard to equal. The objective of this department, so far as the Basic Class was concerned, was to make good military horsemen. No serious attempt was made at the finer points in equitation. Major Barry stated in his report, that he was convinced, that in order to replace instructors in his department, either a second year course, or the retention of a few assistant instructors, was a necessity.

Dismounted fencing was dropped from the courses and in the summer of 1921, Sergeant John W. Dimond was ordered to West Point, where he has been on duty ever since.

The following quotation is from the report of Colonel Hawkins: “In the Department of General Instruction, the most notable thing was the series of lectures given by the Director, Colonel Walker, in person. These lectures are the result of much reading, study and labor, and are of paramount importance, since they convince the hearer of the enormous and indispensable service performed by the cavalry of the various nations in the World War.”

A Communications Specialists Course was conducted by Major McQuillin from February 15 to June 30, 1922. A Demolition and Pioneer Course was conducted by Captain

L. C. Gordon, 9th Engineers. The purpose of these courses

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was to furnish cavalry regiments with qualified instructors in the special subjects taught and to train non-commissioned officers and specialists in the proper performance of their specialized duties. The courses were very successful.

Captain H. W. Maas was in charge of Instruction in Horse­ shoeing and Lieutenant I. R. Pollard, V. C., of the Stable Sergeants Course. One class graduated from each of these schools during the year.

The outstanding feature of the year was graduation. The exercises were held from June 1st to 10th. Many prizes were donated by the business men of Junction City. The following quotation is from the concluding remarks of the report of Major Barry: “I cannot close without expressing my appreciation of the generosity and sportsmanship of the people of Junction City. It was their help which permitted us to have, during graduation, a contest of horses and horsemen second to none ever held on this continent.”

The first day was devoted to pistol and saber contests by permanently organized squads from Basic and Troop Officers’ Platoons. On the second day a Point to Point Race over a course of about five and one-half miles was held for the Field Officers. It was won by Major P. L. Thomas. The final event in the contest for the American Remount Cup, for the best trained remount, was also held the second day. It was won by Lieutenant I. R. Pollard, V. C., on Black Oak. (Lieutenant Pollard took the course in Equitation during the school year in addition to his other duties) .

June 3 there were two jumping classes, one open to Basic

and Troop Officers’ on remounts, and the other for Troop Officers on jumpers. Captain P. S. Haydon won the first event on Gooney and the second on Alamo. June 4 • was Sunday, with a Baccalaureate address by Rev. Marcotte of Kansas City.

June 5 the competition for the Patton Cup, given this year for mounted swordsmanship, was won by Lieutenant Harry Mewshaw. Lieutenant W. F. Jennings won a mounted pistol competition, open to members of the Basic Class. A combined Pistol and Saber Competition over an unknown course and open to Basic and Troop Officers was won by Lieutenant F. deL. Comfort. Colonel I. S. Martin, on Dawn of Peace, his own horse, won a jumping event open to field officers.

June 6, 7, and 8. were devoted to a remount competition open to members of the Basic Class on their regularly assigned remounts. The first day was devoted to judging the entries in pistol and saber work. On the second day there was a 21 mile ride to be completed in 2 1 ⁄ 4 hours, taking many obstacles. Penalties were awarded for jumping faults and over-

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time. On the third day, contestants not eliminated previously, jumped over a course of 17 jumps, erected the night before and which none had ever seen. This event was won by Captain Malcolm Byrn·e on Chester.

On the night of June 9, the first annual night ride was held over an unknown course of 55 miles. This event was won by Captain C. H. Gerhardt on Dolomite in 5 hours and 3 minutes. The horses were drawn by lot, i. e., each entrant drew a number and that determined the order in which horses should be selected. The writer’s number for choice was about

70 and old Poker Chip was about the likeliest horse left at that time. Poker Chip made his 8 miles per hour, steadily all night long and all the powers ori earth couldn’t have increased his mileage. Dismounting and leading is right and should frequently be done. But when one has dragged half a ton of unwilling horseflesh up several hills between midnight and sunrise, one is apt to doubt the merit of the system so far as that particular horse is concerned. But the writer has no grudge against Poker Chip. He did his best and no one can demand more.

It was during this school year that Colonel Romeyn and Major Barry, mounted on Daingerfield and Bluemont, respectively, rode 16 miles in one hour on the Island. Neither horse suffered any ill effects from the ride.

The chapel was the scene of another wedding during the school year, when Captain Rinaldo L. Coe and Miss Elinore Canfield were married.

September 2, 1922, Stable No. 46 was struck by lightning and was destroyed by fire. Fortunately, there were no horses in it at the time.

During the school year 1922-1923, there were no changes in the office of the Commandant, Executive or Surgeon. Colonel Hawkins was Assistant Commandant until April I, 1923, and from then until the end of the year there was no regularly appointed Assistant Commandant. Lieutenant­ Colonel A. B. Coxe became Secretary upon graduation June 10, 1922. Major J. H. Gould, V. C., was retired May 15 and Major R. J. Foster, V. C., became Veterinarian during the summer. The other Veterinarians were I st Lieutenants I. R. Pollard and H. N. Beeman. Lieutenant-Colonel R. E. Smyser was relieved as Quartermaster July 8. 1922, and Lieutenant­ Colonel W. W. Whitside, Q. M. C., reported August 20, 1922. Captain W. F. Saportas became Property and Mess Officer in June, 1922.

Department of Tactics. Colonel Cavenaugh was relieved as Director in June, 1922, by Colonel L. W. Oliver. The Instructors were Lieutenant-Colonels W. J. Scott, R. McC. Beck,

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Frank Keller, C. Lininger; Majors H. S. Smalley (until July 30, 1922), J. R. Kennedy, F. A., (January 29-April 14, 1923), McQuillin, J. T. McLane, C. B. Lyman, Inf., (joined January 5, 1923), C. C. Benson; Captains 0. L. Haines,

0. B. Trigg, W. B. Bradford, L. F. Lawrence, Brock Putnam; Lieutenant W. F. Pride. Lieutenant-Colonel L. A. I. Chap­ man died September 15, 1922.

Department of General Instruction. Colonel Walker was Director and the Instructors were: Majors Aleshire and J. M. Thompson; Captains J. F. Stevens and G. X. Cheves; Lieutenant H. C. Clark, J. A. G. D.

Department of Cavalry Weapons. Lieutenant-Colonel Au­brey Lippincott was Director with the following Instructors: Major G. W. Chipman and W. M. Grimes and Lieutenant

P. McD. Robinett.

Department of Horsemanship. Major Barry was Director and the Instructors were: Majors Sloan Doak, Wilbourn,

J. K. Brown; Captains J. B. Thompson, H. R. Kilbourne,

W. T. Bauskett, L. A. Shafer; Lieutenants F. L. Carr and

R. C. Winchester.

The Ninth Cavalry arrived from the Philippines November 16, 1922. It was reorganized and absorbed the men of the Cavalry School Detachment, Colored, and took over the duties of that organization. Major J. F. Richmond became Commanding Officer upon the arrival of the regiment.

Captain D. E. Cleary was discharged in December and Lieutenant Robinett was in command of Machine Gun Troop Number One, after Captain Cleary’s departure.

Colonel F. C. Marshall from the Office of the Chief of Cavalry, while making a tour of inspection, lost his life in an airplane. The new field at Fort Riley was named Marshall Field in his honor. Through the efforts of Major Tinker and General King, a monument was erected in the memory of Colonel Marshall, near the hangars, in 1925. The construction of three hangars was completed during the school year.

A paper called The Standard was started at the beginning of the school year with 2d Lieutenant Robert M. Eichels­doerfer as Editor and Business Manager. It was a weekly, printed in the office of the Junction City Daily Union, and has had a very successful career. It was edited by Lieutenant Eichelsdoerfer until June, 1925, when Captain W. B. Brad­ford became Editor.

The Advanced Course was the new name given the Field Officers’ Course. Students of that class were in attendance from January l O to June IO and the personnel of the class was as follows: Colonels J. E. Cusack and A. E

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