The History Of Fort Riley

Captain of Cavalry
U.S. A.
Frontispiece: Fort Riley From the Air (About 1928. Camp Funston in the background)




It is the. hope of the author that, by reading this brief history, that generation of officers who attended one of the schools at Fort Riley before the World War may revive old memories, and that the present and future generations of cavalry officers may learn something of the history of this Post, which has now become what General Sheridan foresaw-“A headquarters for cavalry of the Army.”

Fort Riley,

July 27, 1926.


Five years of service at Fort Riley furnished the author with a familiarity with local surroundings and a certain amount of local lore, gathered while hunting ducks at Whiskey Lake and various other points in the vicinity of the reservation. Uncle Jimmy Dawson and Brigadier General E. E. Booth furnished the inspiration which started the work. When Uncle Jimmy wrote to General Booth in the early months of 1926, the General requested the author to visit the Odd Fellows Home and gather such historical data as might be available. About the middle of March, the author conceived the idea of writing a History of Fort Riley.

At about the same time, orders were received. that he would sail for the Philippines in August. That fact intensified the task by placing a time limit on it. The co-operation which the author received from everyone interviewed, from the facilities made available thru the kindness of General Booth, and from the Kansas State Historical Society, made the completion of the work possible within the time available.

If apparent omissions have been made the author craves indulgence from the reader. It was impossible to interview everyone who should have been interviewed, or to write up all the interesting stories related. The sands of time never flowed more rapidly than since the middle of March, when the work was started. With the handicap of a time limit, it was necessary to eliminate many interesting details and the author tried to exercise his best judgment as to what would be of the greatest interest to the largest number of readers.

Acknowledgment is made to the following persons for assistance rendered in the preparation of the book:

Brigadier General E. E. Booth, U. S. A.; Brigadier Generals Granger Adams and Charles G. Treat, U. S. A., retired; Colonels R. J. Fleming, A. N. McClure and L. W. Oliver; Colonel George H. Cameron, retired; Lieutenant Colonels Beverly


Browne, Lewis Brown, Jr., Gordon Johnston and W. V. Mor­ ris; Lieutenant Colonel Charles Jewell, V. C., retired; Major John T. McLane, Captain A. B. Ames, Q. M. C.; Mr. Frank Churchill; the following warrant officers and non-commissioned officers: Mr. John J. Hess, Mr. Bowman, Mr. Whidden, Sergeants Weir, Okum, Eckel. Carducci, McAleese, Irwin, Mayer, Davis and Dare; Mr. Otnes, Johnny Brooks, Si Rogers; the following civilians not actively connected with the Post at present: Mr. George R. Faringhy of Wichita (Mr. Faringhy was particularly interested and without his able assistance many interesting details would not have been unearthed); Mr. William

E. Connelley, secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society;

E. D. Zellner, Dr. Fred O’Donnell, Louis Loeb, Edward Huston, George W. Campbell, Jess Langvardt, “Doc” Fretz, Robert

D. Henderson, Mr. and Mrs. James Clemons, Hal Pierce, A. C. Pierce, Mr. and Mrs. John Moore, Henry Thiele, Jake Callen,

M. D. Peeso, “Chief• Nicholson, Mr. and Mrs. Jack Ebbutt, Mr. and Mrs. Bill Ebbutt, the Harvey family, “Tug” Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Johnson, Dave Hoffman, John Stein, Tom Keeshan, Levi Marchesseault, Victor Montgomery, Mr. Boller, Wm. Benison, the George Smith Memorial Library, Junction City Union, Junction City Republic, the Odd Fellows Home; the following ladies: Mrs. Nancy S. King, Mrs. Mary Marchesseault, Miss Ella Mackey, Miss Blanche Rizer, Miss Josephine Rizer, Mrs. Burns, Mrs. Caleb Estes; my wife, who spent many hours searching thru the files of ancient newspapers, at the public library.

Fort Riley,

July 27, 1926.


Captain of Cavalry, U.S. A.




FRONTISPIECE S DEDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7





The rim-rock-ancient life of Kansas-The Seven Cities of Cibola-Old Spanish Explorers-Coronado’s visit to the Land of Quivira in 1S41-Ancient Indian village sites in Kansas IS



The early French explorations of the Mississippi Valley-Marquette and Joliet-La Salle takes possession of the Mississippi in the name of France­ New Orleans and St. Louis-France cedes New Orleans and territory west of the Mississippi to Spain-Napoleon takes this territory back-The Louisiana Purchase-American explorations-Lewis and Clark-Pike, Long and Fremont

-Division of the newly acquired country into territories 26


OLD Trails

The Santa Fe Trail :_Its course across Kansas-Early traders–The establishment of “Cantonment Leavenworth” in 1827-General Henry Leavenworth­ The first military escort over the Santa Fe Trail commanded by Major Bennett Riley-F. X. Aubrey and his famous rides-The Oregon Trail-The Mormon Trail across the reservation of Fort Riley-The overland mail, overland stage and Pony Express. 37



The Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850-Kansas as seen in the Indian Territory-The first camp at Fort Riley in 1852-Called Camp Center-Major General Bennett Riley-Navigation on the Kansas River­ Percival G. Lowe-The beginning of permanent construction at Fort Riley­ The cholera epidemic of 1855-Death of Major Ogden-A remarkable ride on a mule-Juniata or Dyer’s Town 55




The arrival of assistance–G. W. McLain-The lime kiln-A quick trip to Leavenworth with thirty six-mule teams-Conditions improve-Ogden Monu-



ment-A statement by Mr. Sawyer, the contractor-History of the Ogden Monument-Old Buildings-The haunted house-The first surveys of the reservation 73



The Kansas-Nebraska Bill-Territory of Kansas created May 30, 1854- Andrew J. Reeder, first Territorial Governor-First capital a Fort Leaven­ worth-Pawnee Town Site Association-Trial of Major Montgomery-The Pawnee Legislature-“Bogus” Laws–Reeder’s removal-Ogden, Riley City and Whiskey Point-Wilson Shannon as Territorial Governor-The Wakarusa War-John Brown-The Free State Legislature-Governor’s John W. Geary,

·R. J. Walker, J. W. Denver and Samuel Medary-Karisas becomes a state,

January 29, 1861-The first Governor of the State. 98



Millard City-Junction City once named Manhattan-Robert Henderson­ First white children born in Junction City-P. B. Plumb and A. C. Pierce­ “Junk town”-Fraternal organizations–Steamboats at Junction City-Local politics of the early days–Some early settlers–George Smith-Newspapers­ Streeter and Strickler-The Republican River Bridge Company-Schools–The coming of railroads–Business men of the early days–Hynes and his attempt to jump a claim in the park-Tom Allen, a two-fisted peace officer. 117



Fort Riley was pro-slavery before the Civil War-Another Aunt Cely and Patsy story-The first paper published at Fort Riley-The coming of the rail­ road in 1866-Seventh Cavalry organized at Fort Riley-Republican River Bridge Company-Wild Bill Hickock-Another cholera epidemic-School of Application for Light Artillery in 1869-Governor James M. Harvey 143



Fort Riley Amateur Military Dramatic Association-The first theater School of Applications for Light Artillery discontinued in 1871-Career of Robert Wilson-Grand Duke Alexis–Sixth Cavalry Dramatic Association­ The romance of Sarah Allender-Caleb Estes–Ellis County’s lost opportunity

-Grasshopper Year-The Chaffee-Rockwell wedding-The coming of Moses Waters as Post Sutler-Origin of term “Golden Belt”-Colonel Pennypacker and the Sixteenth Infantry-The Campbell Farm near Campbell Hill-A re­ porter’s description of some of the officers at the Post in 1879-Fredrik Rosencrantz-Ordnance Sergeant Pat Daly-Social life of the seventies. 163



Retirement of Chaplain Reynolds–Fort Riley connected with Junction City by telephone in 1883–Fencing of the reservation-First colored Chaplain in the Army assigned to Ninth Cavalry at Fort Riley-Water and ice problems-­ Recommendations of General Sheridan in 1884-Cavalry School proposed for


Fort Riley-General Sheridan visits the Post-Arrival of Fifth Cavalry-Pat Daly in command of the Post-Visit of General Miles-Arrival of Captain Pond and the beginning of permanent construction-Death of Chaplain Reynolds-First Kansas National Guard encampment at Fort Riley-First Street Railway Company formed in Junction City-Act of Congress establishing a School of Application for Cavalry and Light Artillery at Fort Riley­ Junction City’s boom-Arrival of Major Williston-Second visit of General Sheridan-Arrival of Seventh Cavalry-Erection of Waters Hall-Mose Waters’ big clean-up-“Tug” Wilson and Ratliff-Reservation ceded to Federal Government by State Legislature-Davis County becomes Geary County-Arrival of first artillery units-Death of Mose Waters-Second Street Railway Company organized-Conrad Schmidt-Consolidated mess-Roster of officers-­

Comanche-Establishment of canteen-Second Lieutenant S. R. H. Tompkins

-Wounded Knee-Bache-Forsyth wedding-Chittenden survey of the reserva- tion 185



The establishment of the School-G. 0. No. 17, A. G. 0., March 14, 1892- Major Randolph succeeds Colonel Williston-Boys of ’93-Postmistress Mc­ Blain-Major Morris-Dedication of Wounded Knee Monument-Fort Riley Budget-Fleming-Grimes wedding-Organization of School in 1893-Colonel Carpenter-Vic Montgomery-Colonel Forsyth relieved by Colonel Sumner­ Colonel Arnold-Visit of General Schofield-Fort Riley Guidon–Macomb survey-“Doc” Kiernan-First Golf Club-Dedication of new chapel-Spanish­ American War-Chaplain Barry Commandant-Return of the troops-The famous hold-up, said to have furnished the plot for “Ransom’s Folly”-Hugh Drum, Dana T. Merrill and others succumb to demands of Walter C. Short, Si Rogers and F. C. Marshall-A wild night-Colonel Rodney-Buffalo Bill at the Club-Colonel Rodney relieved by Colonel Carr-Levi Marchesseault appointed Steward at the Club-20th Battery, F. A., organized at Riley in 1901-Third Street Railway Company makes good-Consolidated mess abandoned-Death of Sergeant Buchanan-Arrival of pack trains-Dedication of Quivira Monument-Maneuvers at Camp Root-Farriers’ and Horseshoers’ School started­ Cavalry Board-Maneuvers of 1903-Colonel Godfrey-First course in equitation-The curriculum-Bakers and Cooks School established-Forestation of the reservation-Post Exchange moved from Waters Hall-“Doc” Tempany­ Building of the redoubts-First foreign officers to take a course at Riley-Sixth Field Artillery organized at Riley-Recommendations of General Godfrey 213



The original of some well known names at Riley-Coat of arms of M. S. S. and Cavalry School-General Godfrey relieved by Colonel Ward-General Kerr Commandant-Secretaries of the School-General Godfrey’s recommendations adopted-Mounted Service School established-Instructors and students for 1907-08-Captain L. R. Holbrook and Pat Dunne-A. B. Ames and J. D. Whidden-Camp of Instruction and Maneuver-Death of Conrad Schmidt­ General Kerr relieved by Colonel Ward-Instructors and students for 1908-09

-Second Year Course authorized-M. S.S. Detachment organized-First U. S. Army team to compete in a national horse show-Instructors and students for 1909-fO-Colonel Lockett becomes Commandant-Instructors and students for 1910-11-Captain Short recommends school be transferred to Virginia-First Rasp-Herman and Henry Wetzig fly over Fort Riley-Instructors and students for 1911-12-Some horses of 1912-Colonel Lockett relieved by Colonel Gaston-Instructors and students for 1912-13-Major Rhodes becomes Com-


mandant-Instructors and students for 1913-14-1914 Rasp the last until 1920—instructors and students 1914-15-First class of non-commissioned officers-In 1915-16 War Department decided school would remain at Fort Riley-All courses shortened in 1916-Instructors and students 1916 249



Fort Riley, the author’s first station, in 1917-Some personal recollections-­ Funston-Army City-M. 0. T. C.-NCO classes in 1917-Colonel Rodgers Acting Commandant-Evan W. Suddarth-Charles Mayer-From Farrier to Commanding Officer of a Bakery Company-Instructors and classes 1917-18- instructors in 1919-Colonel Cameron-The end of Camp Funston 277



The establishment of service schools for all arms-Personnel of School in 1919-20-0lympic Team of 1920—The curriculum-Personnel of School in 1920-21-The Rasp revived-Creel-Cameron wedding-General Craig becomes Commandant-M. G. Troop No. 1-Co. A 9th Engineers-16th Observation Squadron and 9th Photo Section-Personnel of School in 1921-22-Some per­ sonal recollections of the Class of 1921-.22-Graduation-The first Night Ride

-Coe-Canfield wedding-Personnel of School in 1922-23-Ninth Cavalry­ Marshall Field-The Standard-The Employment of Cavalry-The Standard Stakes-Doak-Kreager wedding-General Craig relieved by General King­ Personnel of the School in 1923-24-Personnel of School in 1924-25-The “Life o’ Riley”-General King relieved by General Booth-Chico-Whiskey Lake dries up 286



The old race track-Lieutenant W. J. Nicholson and Mose Waters in a race–“Doc” O’Donnell and Louis Loeb match a “one lung” Cadillac and a thoroughbred hunter-Polo on the “Hogback”-The first tournament in 1897-

K. C., St. Louis and Fort Riley-Some ponies of that period-Junction City Team organized in 1904-Kansas City Team of about 1905-Location of fields-Erection of old bungalow-Polo in the Sixth Field Artillery about 1909-Junction City Country Club at Whiskey Lake–The Humboldt Polo Team-The Ninth Period-Sixth Field Artillery enlisted men’s team-Curly …

Hunting at Fort Riley-First organized pack in 1896-Lieutenant H. T. Allen the organizer-The Junction City Pack in 1905-Lieutenant Gordon Johnston- A coursing meet-The Cavalry School Hunt since the World War 320

Conclusion-A toast 339

The History of Fort Riley



The rim rock is a familiar landmark at The Cavalry School. Student officers ride over it, their horses fall up and down it, it is a basic contour in map reading, it has been shot at and reviled and it is even possible that sweethearts sat upon it and watched the sun sink to rest in those d,ays when courtship was not a matter of gas and oil. And as one travels over Kansas it is apparent that the rim rock is not accidental and local but that its constant, level line marks the outline of an ancient inland lake or sea. Paleontologists and geologists now know that quite a part of central and western Kansas was once covered by a great inland sea. George P. Morehouse in a paper entitled “Kansas Archaeology,” published in Connelley’s “Kansas and Kansans,” states, “After examining a fossil fish sent to him from Hamilton county, Chancellor Snow said, ‘Your fine fish probably lives and dies when what is now Hamilton County, more than 3,000 feet above the present sea level, was under the salt water ocean. Remains of fishes, sharks, and great sea monsters are found abundantly in the rocks of western Kansas, especially along the banks of the Smoky Hill river and its branches. The Rocky Mountains were not upheaved when your fish lived and died.’ “

Discovered fossils show that this inland sea contained within its waters huge prehistoric monsters of the type of the ichthyosaurus, pterodactyl, large sharks and fishes. The finding of huge teeth, bones, and skeletons of the mastodon and megatherium type indicate that there were also gigantic land animals on the shores of this sea. On the Henderson Farm at Logan Grove just south of Junction City, Mr. Robert D. Henderson told the writer he found what he described as the “knuckle joint” of some prehistoric animal. This was found some years ago when Mr. Henderson was digging near the bank of a small creek on his farm. The bone was sent to Topeka for identification and was accidentally destroyed.

In 1902, near Lansing, in Leavenworth County, some work­ men were digging a deep tunnel, when they found a skeleton which has since become famous as the “Lansing man.” Scientists from all over the United States visited Lansing and from



the formation in which the bones were found, the nature of the soil and the depth, as well as from a study of the bones themselves, the age of this skeleton has been estimated to be from 10,000 to 35,000 years. This and other discoveries make it practically certain that man inhabited this region as far back as

. the glacial period and possibly before.

The country surrounding the Smoky Hill and Republican rivers has been of interest to explorers since the first coming of white men to this country. There seems to be little doubt that Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was the first white man to actually visit this region. However, that claim is made for two others, Ferdinand de Soto and Cabeza de Vaca.

Holloway in a “History of Kansas,” published in 1868, claims that Ferdinand de Soto was the first white man to see the Mississippi, and that he reached the headwaters of Arkansas within one hundred miles of the southern boundary of Kansas. This was about 1540. But Holloway then goes on to state that it was more than a century before another European visited the Mississippi Valley, which we now know to be erroneous. So much research has been made since the publication of Holloway’s book, that his statement must be viewed in the light of later knowledge.

In a paper read before the Kansas State Historical Society in 1889, the Hon. Joel Moody makes the statement that Cabeza de Vaca, who will later be introduced to the reader as one of the survivors of the ill-fated expedition of Narvaez, actually reached the great bend of the Arkansas river and passed thru the “cow country.” Moody believes that Coronado later followed the route of de Vaca from the vicinity of Las Vegas to the “cow country.” As a matter of fact, de Vaca and his three companions were without implements or ability to make records of any sort. They were even naked part of the time. Therefore, it is not to be presumed that the record of their wanderings is very accurate. It is possible that they may have visited ancient Quivira but, while claims made to that effect for Coronado are practically indisputable, those made for de Vaca are doubtful.

The movement which led to the expedition of Coronado had its origin in the myths of the “Seven Cities” of Cibola. These myths were very readily believed at that time (1530) because of the immensity of the spoils gathered by Pizarro in the Peruvian Empire. It was reasonable to suppose that what Pizarro had accomplished in South America might be duplicated in North America.

The myth of the “Seven Cities” appeared first in Mexico in 1530 and was initiated by an Indian employee of the estate of Nuno de Guzman, then president of New Spain. This Indian


claimed to be the son of a trader and was a native of the valley of Oxi Tipar. The trader had died prior to 1530 but his son, who claimed to have accompanied him on his trips into the interior, told wondrous tales of the gold and silver to be found there. He also told Guzman that he had seen in that land, which lay to the north, some towns as large as the City of Mexico then was. In seven of those towns there were streets given over to shops and workers in the precious metals. The Indian further stated that those cities were so far distant from his native valley that forty days were required to reach them and the way was through a barren land where no plant life was to be seen except a few desert shrubs.

Hoping to find such lands to plunder, Guzman organized an expedition to discover the “Seven Cities.” But the difficulties encountered in the first stages of the march discouraged his men and the attempt was abandoned.

Tales and rumors concerning this mythical land of promise continued to be circulated about for the next ten years. These tales were mainly circulated by the survivors of an expedition of Panfilo de Narvaez. Narvaez was a Spanish officer who sailed from Spain and thence from Cuba about 1528 under a royal patent to conquer and govern Florida. At that time Florida embraced all that part of North America, along the Atlantic coast and bordering on the Gulf of Mexico to the Rio Grande, which river was then called Rio de Palmas by the Spaniards. This expedition was unsuccessful. Narvaez divided his force on reaching Florida near Apalachee Bay, one portion proceeding by land and the other by sea. That part of his force that went to sea was never heard of again. Of the land force there were four survivors who, after wandering in the wilds of Texas and Northern Mexico for seven years, were finally rescued on the coast of the Gulf of California in 1536. These survivors were Cabeza de Vaca, Maldonado, Dorantes and an Arabian negro slave named Estevan. Cabeza de Vaca returned to Spain but the others remained in Mexico. Those who remained were the guests of the viceroy, Don Antonio de Mendoza, who bought the negro from his master, Dorantes. This purchase, probably, was the result of a selfish motive as de Vaca and his companions, in telling the tale of their wanderings, gave the impression that riches were to be found in the lands to the north and Mendoza hoped to use Estevan as a guide.

The stories of Estevan, ind those of the Indian from the valley of Oxitipar, excited the desire of the Spaniards for gold. It came to be a common report that the houses of the “Seven Cities” were four stories high, with doors faced with precious stones. The principal men of the provinces, and even those in


Spain, became rivals for the royal permission to explore and set­tle the country of Cibola. This privilege finally went to Men­doza, the viceroy, who selected the post of Compostela, on the Pacific, as the point of assembly. He appointed as commander of the expedition, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado.

Coronado left Compostela on the 23rd of February, 1540, and followed the common highway to San Miguel de Culican. The expedition left Culican on the 22d of April and proceeded northeast, their route leading them into the land now included in eastern Arizona. There they were met by Indians whom they defeated and the Spaniards took possession of the Zuni villages on the 7th of July, 1540. The “Seven Cities” were the filthy, unlighted, unventilated, gloomy pueblos to this day on the Indian reservations in Arizona.

But Coronado had not finished his explorations. He sent out several detachments to explore the region’s roundabout. At this time there appeared before Coronado a chief from the province of Cicuye, to the east of Cibola. This chief came in response to a general invitation to the Indians to come before the expedition as friends. The Spaniards called the chief Bigotes, or Whiskers, because he wore a long mustache. He brought presents for Coronado, among which was the skin of a buffalo, which puzzled the Spaniards exceedingly, as they could not understand how a “cow” could have such hair.

Whiskers became the guide for one of Coronado’s detachments under Alvarado, which was sent to the east and which reached the river Tiguex, or the Rio Grande, on the 7th of September. Alvarado continued to the east and at the end of five days arrived at an Indian village called Cicuye.

Historians vary in their opinions as to the location of some of the points mentioned by the early explorers. No attempt has been made in this book to verify the authenticity of the various claims. Even the old Spanish chronicles contain contradictory statements. Accordingly, any statements made herein concerning the location of places, such as villages and so forth, have been taken from the best available sources and represent the consensus of opinion.

The village of Tiguex, where Alvarado crossed the river Tiguex, was supposed to have been in the vicinity of Bernalillo, while Cicuye has been identified with the ruins of Pecos.

At Cicuye, Alvarado found an Indian who was a native of some country far to the east. He differed in appearance from the Indians at Cicuye and resembled a Turk, from which circumstance he has been referred to as the “Turk ” by many historians. This Indian was undoubtedly a native of some tribe living along the Mississippi. He acted as a guide on a trip Alvarado made from Cicuye to see the buffalo and told


Alvarado had such wondrous tales of gold and silver to be found in the land of Quivira, that chasing buffalo seemed a waste of time and energy to the Spaniards. •

Shortly after this, Alvarado and his men returned to Tiguex, taking the Turk with them. Coronado’s expedition spent the winter at Tiguex where they were entertained by the tales of the Turk in which he told them of the wonders of Quivira. These tales so interested the Spaniards that Coronado set out on the 23rd of April, 154 I. to find that country. They went by Cicuye but did not stop there. Nine days out from Cicuye, they came to the great plains and saw their first herds of buffalo. For thirty-five days more they continued to the east without a sign of civilization to encourage them. With Coronado was an inhabitant of Quivira, named Ysopete, who had insisted

from the start that the Turk was lying. At first the Spaniards gave the Turk complete confidence, but after wandering over the treeless plains for a month, they finally became doubtful and the Turk was put into chains and later murdered.

Ysopete and some Teya Indians, natives of the country the Spaniards were then passing through, became the guides. Eventually, Coronado came to the Arkansas river where he turned to the northeast and finally reached Quivira.

The location of Quivira cannot be accurately determined. Data definite enough to establish its location has not been in existence for three or four hundred years. It is safe to state, however, that it was in the present territory of Kansas. This ancient Indian land may have lapped over and included parts of Nebraska, Missouri, or Oklahoma, but it was mainly located on the plains of Kansas.

Various attempts have been made to locate the boundary of Quivira, the most interesting of which, particularly from a local viewpoint, was that of Mr. J. V. Brower. Mr. Brower, a native of Minnesota, made extensive explorations and researches into the routes of the early Spanish explorers. He personally traveled over much of the trail of Coronado from Mexico to Kansas, in the nineties, and his research included correspondence with Spain and Mexico in search of data. He collected thousands of relics, many of which may now be seen in the museum of the Kansas State Historical Society.

Brower claims to have located the boundary of Quivira accurately. In Logan Grove, just south of Junction City on the Henderson farm, is a monument, unveiled in 1902, that commemorates the rediscovery of Quivira. On the 27th of October, 1904, a similar monument was unveiled in the city park in Manhattan. Part of the boundary, as determined by Brower, followed the line of hills south of the Smoky Hill river from a

.point south of Chapman, to a point south of Fort Riley, thence


south of the Kansas river to the hills on Dewey’s ranch, south of Manhattan, and from there back to the southwest. Thus that portion of Quivira in this vicinity, is of a triangular shape with its apex in the vicinity of Dewey’s ranch.

The matter of defining exactly such ancient boundaries must be approached with caution, however. We must consider that, while no one can absolutely dispute Brower’s statements, neither can he make them with absolute certainty. According to his charts, the lines bounding Quivira bend around the heads of ravines almost as though a careful survey had been made. It is rather unlikely, after a lapse of 350 years since Coronado’s journey and remembering that Quivira was ancient when he visited it, that its boundaries can ever be determined with any great degree of accuracy.

Kansas takes great pride in the fact that her plains were ridden over by mailed knights generations before Jamestown and Plymouth Rock were known. There is a romance in the thought of ancient Quivira, hoary with antiquity, and ancient before ever Coronado followed the lure of gold to its borders. The exact metes and bounds of that ancient land are unimportant. It is sufficient to know that Quivira was Kansas and Kansas was Quivira. Whether or not that land included other territory is immaterial. Coronado’s journey was not in vain.

‘One of the most interesting of the relics pertaining to the expedition of Coronado was a sword found in 1886 near the headwaters of the Pawnee nearly due north of the town of Ingalls, Kansas. It was found about seven miles northeast of an Indian burial ground and was partly concealed in the ground. It was deeply covered with rust and no traces of a handle remained. The sword was about thirty inches long, about one and one-half inches wide at the hilt, edges blunt, point sharpened for about three inches and the whole was very flexible, resonant, and very hard. When the rust was rubbed off there were found two parallel grooves extending from the hilt about halfway to the point containing the following inscription, one line in each groove:


The inscription means, “Draw me not without reason. Sheathe me not without honor.”

This inscription was placed on Spanish swords of Coronado’s time and before. Between the inscription and the hilt are two crosses in the grooves and toward the hilt from the crosses are four lines across the blade. Between the lines is the name “Gallego” in script. On the other side of the sword is the name “Juan.” The two sides are duplicates except for the script. It


It is known that there was a Captain Juan Gallego in Coronado’s expedition and it is believed the sword belonged to him.

This sword may now be found in the museum of the Kansas State Historical Society at Topeka, Kansas.

In a “Translation of the Narrative of Jaramillo” called “Account Given By Captain Juan Jaramillo of the Journey Which He Made to the New Country, on Which Francisco Vazquez Coronado Was the General,” we find the following statement: “The Indian who guided us from here was the one that had given us the news about Quivira and Arachne (or Arahei) ,” from which we can see the similarity to the word Harahey used by Brower. Again, in the same account we find that, “The general wrote a letter here to the governor of Harahey and Qui­bira, having understood that he was a Christian from the lost army of Florida.” This indicates that the governor of Quivira and the governor of Harahey were one and the same man. It is of interest to note that in the brief quotations given, Quivira is spelled first as “Quivira” and then as “Quibira.” Harahey we find as “Arahei.” This illustrates the difficulties surrounding any attempt to sift out really accurate-data from such ancient accounts.

Upon the monument at Logan Grove we find the names Jar­amillo, Padilla and Tatarrax. Jaramillo has been mentioned. Padilla was a priest frequently referred to as Fray (or Fria) Juan Padilla. When Coronado returned to Mexico at the end of his expedition, Padilla remained behind on· the Rio Grande with Fray Juan de la Cruz, a Portuguese by the name of Andres del Campo, two negroes and some Indians. In the fall of 1542. Padilla returned to Quivira as a missionary. One account claims that after remaining there a short time he set out for another province, the natives of which were enemies of Quivira, and that the Quivirians murdered him rather than have him go to their enemies. There are several different versions of the account of Padilla’s wanderings and the only definite conclusion we can make is that he did return to Quivira after Coronado’s first visit and that he lost his life there. On the top of a hill, known as Mount Padilla, near the town of Council Grove, about thirty-five miles southeast of Junction City, is a monument about ten feet high, made of rough, uncut limestone. This monument was there when the first settlers came to the vicinity, and it is supposed to mark the spot where Father Padilla was buried. In the early days of Council Grove there was a pile of smaller stones of all sizes, shapes, kinds and colors near the monument. It was apparent that the smaller stones had been brought from a distance and were probably brought as offerings to what was regarded as a sacred spot. The monument was there before the Kansa Indians were, yet it exerted


a mysterious influence on their minds. They claimed it was the marker for a great white medicine man. The Kansa Indians were hereditary enemies of the Quivirians in 1601. That being the case, they might have been their enemies fifty or sixty years before that, when Padilla returned to the Quivirians and lost is life while trying to carry the message of Christ to their enemies.

Tatarrax was the name of the chief of Quivira at the time of Coronado’s visit.

There is little doubt that the people of ancient Quivira were of the Caddoan linguistic stock of North American Indians. There were two branches of the Caddoan family, the Pawnees and the Wichitas. The early pioneers found the Wichitas along the Arkansas river, while the Pawnees lived along the Big Blue river. One of the oldest of the Pawnee villages was on the site of the present Blue Springs, in Gage County, Nebraska. Brower would have us believe that the Wichita Indians were the native Quivirans, while the Pawnees were natives of Harahey, a country to the north of Quivira. It is probable that Quivira was inhabited by Wichita Indians but that there was a definite and well defined boundary between the Wichitas and the Pawnees would be difficult to determine at this time.

Other Indian Vibes native to Kansas are the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes of the Algonquin Linguistic family, the Ki­owas of the Kiowan family, the Comanches of the Shoshonean family and the Kansa and Osages of the·Siouan family.

In this account we are principally interested in the Kansa tribe, which comes first in historic importance. When white men first came to this country the tribes of the Siouan family were moving west. This migration can be traced back for generations. The Catawba tribe in the Carolinas were members of the Siouan family. In the course of the migration, one group of the family reached the mouth of the Ohio river. There they divided, one division, the Quapaw (or Kwapa) going down stream while another division, the Omahan group, went upstream. These two groups were afterwards referred to as the downstream and the upstream groups.

The upstream group followed the Missouri Valley and stopped for some time at the mouth of the Osage river where another division took place. The Osages gradually acquired a tribal personality and ascended the Osage river. The Omahas and Ponkas went north through Missouri and the Kansas were the last to leave the mouth of the Osage river. The settlement of the Kansa tribe in the valley of the Kansas river was within historic times.

The word Kansas is an Indian term known to the Siouan tongue far back of historic times. It is so old that its significance


had been lost before any of the Siouans were known to white people. We do know that the word bears some reference and application to wind. The idea that wind was a wakanda, or that it was supernatural, seems to be a fundamental idea of Siouan legends. As late as 1882, the Kansa tribe was still sacrificing and making offerings to its ancient wakan­ das, including the four winds. If we accept the aboriginal significance of the word, then Kansas is the land of the Wind People, or the land of the People of the South Wind. •

The word “Kansa” has been written and spelled in many ways. It is found as Kansa, Kances, Kanza, Konza, Kausa, Kauza, Causa, Cances, and in many other forms.

That part of the state of Kansas around Fort Riley has yielded much interest to the archaeologist. While excavating for the abutments of a bridge on Clark’s creek, near Skiddy, a fireplace, or hearth, of matched stones was found at a depth of about sixteen feet. On and around it were ashes, charcoal, bones, some flint artifacts, and a small coin-shaped disk of metal like brass. Some seven or eight feet above the fireplace, the stump of an oak tree was found where it had grown. This find indicated great age.

Along the banks of many of the streams flowing into the Kansas, Republican, and Smoky Hill rivers, flint tools have been found, indicating that their ancient owners cultivated small tracts of land on those streams. Turkey, Lyon, Clark, Mc­ Dowell, and Humbolt creeks have all yielded their share. Many old village sites have been discovered and explored along Wild Cat creek. Mounds of earth seemed to indicate where permanent earthen lodges once stood and many flint chips, knives, arrow and spear points have been gathered. ‘

One of these ancient villages was on the Henderson farm at Logan Grove. It is known as the Henderson Village Site. When Captain Robert Henderson first settled on that farm he found a depression, in what is now the backyard, in which he placed potatoes covered with hay for the winter. In later years, his sons, becoming interested in Indian relics, dug into the old depression and found it to be a kiln us d by the Indians for the manufacture of pottery. Ashes and charcoal were found, as well as many broken pieces of pottery. This discovery was made in 1886. It was followed by further investigations and there have been found several Indian graves on the farm. Ancient Indian implements and tools are still found, whenever the ground is plowed. The principal grave, or burial mound, was found on a high mound, or knoll. which now is surmounted by a monument, locally known as the “Indian Monument.”

Many other burial mounds and village sites have been found in this general vicinity. Along the Republican river in the


In the vicinity of Springfield and near Milford many relics have been found . unearthed. In support of Brower’s theories, it may be stated that some of the ancient tools, implements, and mounds’ found north of the Kansas river are different from those found to the south of the river. Many other Indian mounds and relics probably will be discovered and it is quite reasonable to suppose that the reservation of Fort Riley may conceal much of interest to the archaeologist.

The discussion of Coronado and Quivira was a common topic in the press of Kansas from the seventies to the nineties. A few verses by James W. Steele written in 1875 are reproduced here as a conclusion to this chapter:

“Well, sit down-we won’t dispute, but the story is rather thin; Three hundred years is a monstrous time for a story to gather in. I’ve heard of Fremont and Bonneville and such men wandering here, But I’m doubtful about your Mexican-dead these three hundred years.

“Quivera, you say they called it? ‘Ta’int English, and couldn’t stand; A Greaser never invented a name that would cover so much land.

And Gold, you say, they were hunting in this Coronado’s march? Well, it’s here, but it’s staying that gets it, and a little deeper s’arch.

“I don’t mean any offense, Mister-it’s good, as stories go,

But three hundred years is so far back, that it ain’t for me to know If the first white speck on the Western Sea was made by a Spanish


And the first lone grave on the Plains was dug beside a Spanish trail.”



After Coronado’s journey to Quivira, the Spanish sent expeditions to explore the Great Plains for a couple of generations. But nothing of importance resulted from any of them so far as concerned Kansas. The Spaniards explored from the Ozarks to the Rockies and from the Rio Grande to the Platte. When they found there were no rich lands to conquer, or cities to plunder, their interest ceased, and it remained for the French to take up the work of exploitation.

The early French explorers started from Canada. There, at their trading posts, they had heard for a long time tales of a great river in the west which they called Mississippi. It was a matter of debate among the French whether this river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico or whether it emptied itself into the Atlantic or the Gulf of California.

Finally in May, 1673, Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit priest, and Joliet, a former priest, set out with five other Frenchmen as companions from Old Point Ignace, on the north side of the Strait of Michilimackinac. This expedition traveled in two birch bark canoes along the shore of Lake Michigan to Green Bay, then up the Fox river, across Lake Winnebago and along the Fox river to its source. There they made a portage to the Wisconsin river and then into the Mississippi. At Green Bay the Indians sought to dissuade Marquette from going further, telling him of the dangers to be met on the Mississippi, or as they called it, the Meschasebe. The expedition reached the Mississippi about the 17th of June, 1673, and the Frenchmen continued down the river, stopping at various Indian villages along the way, passing the Missouri river, until they reached the mouth of the Arkansas, where they found a village of the Arkansas, or Quapaw Indians. Here the Frenchmen decided they had descended the Mississippi far enough to determine that it emptied into the Gulf of Mexico rather than the Gulf of California or the Atlantic and, considering this information of much importance in Canada, started their return journey about the 17th of July. The next year Marquette founded a mission which he named Kaskaskia, at a point near Utica, Ininois.

The expedition of Marquette and Joliet was merely a preliminary step in the discovery and development of the Mississippi Valley and the West. The next explorer was the celebrated



Robert de La Salle. He had long believed that the Mississippi flowed into the Gulf of Mexico and after Marquette confirmed this belief, La Salle conceived the idea of increasing the glory of France, and possibly his own, by colonizing the Mississippi Valley and connecting Canada and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of fortifications.

Accordingly, La Salle made his proposition known to the Governor of Canada and then ·to the King of France, securing the good will and approval of both. His first start was not successful, as he only reached the mouth of the St. Joseph River, near the southeastern extremity of Lake Michigan, in time to spend the winter of 1680-81 there. During the winter Fort Miami. His second expedition started from Fort Miami about December 21, 1681, and reached the Mississippi about February 6, 1682. On his way down the river, he erected Fort Prudhomme on Chickasaw Bluffs. La Salle reached the head of the delta at the mouth of the Mississippi on April 6, 1682. Near the mouth of the river, with due solemnity and in a formal manner, he assembled his band to make a formal proclamation and take possession of the Mississippi for France. A wooden cross was erected bearing the coat of arms of France and the following inscription: “Louis Le µrand, Roy De France Et De Navarre, Regne; Le Neuvieme Avril, 1682.”

A part of La Salle’s proclamation at this ceremony follows: “In the name of the most high, mighty, invincible, and victorious Prince, Louis the Great, by the grace of God King of France and of Navarre, Fourteenth of that name, I, this ninth day of April, one thousand six ·hundred and eighty-two, in virtue of the commission of his Majesty, which I hold in my hand, and which may be seen by all whom it may concern, have taken, and do now take, in the name of his Majesty and of his successors to the crown, possession of this country of Louisiana, the seas, harbors, ports, bays, adjacent straits, and all the nations, peoples, provinces, cities, towns, villages, mines, minerals, fisheries, streams, and rivers within the extent of the said Louisiana–.” As defined by La Salle, Louisiana included all the country drained by the waters of the Mississippi and its tributaries, from its source to its mouth.

La Salle, having formally taken possession of the new country, decided to go back to Canada, gather a number of recruits, return to the mouth of the Mississippi and plant a colony there. His journey up the river was delayed by illness and this plan was never carried out. When he reached Fort St. Louis, at Peoria, he left one of his most trusted lieutenants, Tonty, in command, and in December of 1683, La Salle went to France. In 1684, with some three hundred emigrants, he sailed from France to the Gulf of Mexico. This probably was the first at-


tempt to colonize Louisiana by white people. Misfortune began to follow the colonists as soon as they landed. They were attacked by fevers and savages. One by one their ships were destroyed until finally all were gone and La Salle decided to seek assistance in Canada. On his way north a_ mutiny broke out among his men and he was assassinated. His colony was attacked by Spaniards and practically destroyed.

The next attempt at. colonizing the country near the mouth of the Mississippi was by De Iberville in 1699. He established a little settlement near the Bay of Biloxi. Kaskaskia was settled about 1700 and when, eighteen years later, it was fortified by the erection of Fort Chartres, it became the capital of upper Louisiana. New Orleans was founded in the same year ( 1718) and negro slaves were introduced to the country west of the Mississippi, several hundred being brought to work in some lead mines west of St. Genevieve, in what is now Missouri.

About this time the Spanish again invaded Louisiana, not so much with the object of driving out the French, as for the purpose of punishing Indians who had been stealing their horses in New Mexico. The Pawnees had established a strong town in the forks of the Platte river and the Spaniards wished to destroy this. The expedition was practically annihilated by the Pawnees, assisted by the French, with whom they were friendly.

In 1723, Etienne Venyard Sieur de Bourgmont established Fort Orleans. This fort has long since disappeared but it was supposed to have been located on an island in the Missouri river near Malta Bend. The French remembered the Spanish expedition to the Platte and placed this fort to help protect the plains from another invasion. Besides building the fort, Bourg­ mont had a second mission of establishing friendly relations between the French and the Padoucah, or Comanche, Indians. These Indians were now horsemen, thanks to the Spaniards, roving the plains at will and had become a potential menace to the commerce the French hoped to establish.

Accordingly, in the summer of 1724, Bourgmont set out from Fort Orleans with an expedition in two detachments. One went up the Missouri in boats and the other went over­ land to a Canzes (or Kansa) village near where the town of Doniphan, Kansas, now stands. From there, accompanied by three hundred Kansa warriors, the French started for the Paducah country. Bourgmont became ill and returned to Fort Orleans, but the expedition continued on its way and performed its mission. In September, Bourgmont returned to the Kansa town and met the Padoucahs himself, near the head of the Smoky Hill, where a formal peace and alliance was concluded about the 18th of October, 1724. This treaty had such a good effect that Fort Orleans was abandoned by the French in 1726


and the first phase of exploration and settlement in Louisiana was at an end.

During all the time the French were exploring and colonizing the Mississippi Valley they were being watched with a jealous eye by the British. From the time of their earliest settlements Great Britain had claimed all territory in America from sea to sea. As early as 1724, English settlers were to be found along the Ohio river. The British also purchased all the land lying northwest of Ohio from the Indians of the Six Nations. In 1748 the British made up their minds to openly assert their right to the territory and decided the best way to secure their claims to the land was to settle there. The French opposed these early settlers and for some years there was an irregular border warfare.

Late in 1753, Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia sent Major George Washington, then adjutant general of the Virginia militia, to Fort Le Boeuf to demand of the French commander that the French should withdraw from Virginia soil. This demand was refused and early in 1754, Washington was sent back to the country around the Monongahela river, with some militia and one company of British regulars, to oppose the advance of the French. Here he came into contact with the French, near a place called the Great Meadows. This was the beginning of the French and Indian war which later spread to Europe where England, joined with Frederick the Great of Prussia, was opposed to nearly all the rest of Europe. Wolfe won his famous victory on the Plains of Abraham in 1759 and Montreal fell in 1760. In July, 1761, France proposed peace in which she offered to cede Canada and that portion of Louisiana east of the Mississippi to England. The proposal of France was accepted and sealed by the Treaty of Paris, signed February 10, 1763.

Upper Louisiana had grown rapidly in commercial importance under French rule. In 1762, Pierre Laclede Liguest, one of the members of a trading company, went up the Mississippi to select a site for a trading post. The post was established on the site now occupied by the city of St. Louis in February, 1764, and grew rapidly in size and importance. Its location was such that it naturally became the point of supply for all the country drained by the Missouri. After the English gained possession of Eastern Louisiana the Indians that had formerly inhabited that country were forced to migrate to the west of the Mississippi. This fact also helped to increase the trade of St. Louis.

In 1762, France ceded to Spain the city of New Orleans and all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi. During the Spanish


rule of Louisiana conditions arose which made it necessary that the United States should acquire all of that country.

In a proclamation on October 7, 1763, Great Britain established the boundaries of East Florida and West Florida. West Florida included the country between the Mississippi and the Chattahoochee rivers south of the thirty-first parallel. In 1779, Spain declared war against Great Britain. The Spanish commandant at New Orleans, Don Bernard de Galvez, organized an army of Spanish and French Creole troops and quickly captured the forts along the Mississippi before the end of that year. Manchac, Baton Rouge and Natchez all fell before him. In March, 1780, the Spanish captured Mobile and in May, 1781. Pensacola. By these conquests the Spaniards extended the north boundary of West Florida from the thirty-first parallel to the mouth of the Yazoo river. By a treaty of 1784, both Great Britain and the United States were granted the right of free navigation of the Mississippi from its source to its mouth.

The old monarchies of Europe were not pleased with the establishment of a republic in North America. The new country was too rich in possibilities to be independent, in their way of thinking. Each of the older powers had hoped to gain a part of this new territory. Spain was not sincere in granting free rights of navigation on the Mississippi. She thought that by denying that right she might create friction among the differ­ ent sections of the new republic and, if the game was played carefully, she might even destroy the new Union.

After the Revolutionary War settlers crossed the Alleghenies in great numbers. In the West the natural outlet for their trade was down the Mississippi. The people of the Atlantic states, and by that is meant states east of the Alleghenies, have always been more or less indifferent to the West. That indifference has persisted almost to this day (the advent of more efficient means of communication and transportation, including airways, has done much within the last decade to overcome this). So when Kentucky petitioned Virginia and Congress for recognition as a state, she was treated with profound neglect and almost contempt.

The separatist spirit grew rapidly throughout the West due to different causes, local in some cases. Some of the reasons for the growth of this feeling were the refusal of the right to navigate the Mississippi, lack of protection by the government against the Indians, and the feeling of isolation produced by a lack of sympathy or understanding between the people of the East and those of the West. This feeling became so strong along Tennessee that the settlers set up an independent state which they called the State of Franklin, or Frankland.


The general result was that the people of die West began to feel that the Mississippi Valley was a separate land, that it had an entity of its own.

This feeling was exactly what Spain desired. She restricted the navigation of the Mississippi by taxing its commerce prohibitively. If a load of supplies arrived at New Orleans when the market price for those particular commodities was not attractive, the owners were denied the right to land and store their cargo until a more favorable market, or until they might re­ ship. At the same time that this oppression was going on the Spanish were quietly putting out propaganda to the effect that, if the country could all come under Spanish rule, times and conditions would change and all causes of complaint would disappear. While the Americans of the Mississippi probably would not have been willing to permanently accept the rule of Spain, they were willing to make an agreement or alliance in order to obtain an opportunity to develop the commerce and the country unhampered.

At the beginning of the Nineteenth century Napoleon was first consul and the star of France was still ascending. The French.influence over Spain was very complete and Napoleon decided the time was ripe to take back from Spain what had previously been given to her. Accordingly, by the bribe of a minor Italian principality, he made a deal with the King of Spain to cede Louisiana to the French. This was done at the treaty of San Ildefonso, October 1, 1800.

The news of this treaty was not pleasing to the inhabitants of the Mississippi Valley. They finally brought such pressure to bear upon Thomas Jefferson, then President of the United States, that he decided to take definite steps to secure Louisiana for the Union. The first step was to instruct Robert R. Liv­ ingston, then Minister to France, to open negotiations for the purchase of West Florida and New Orleans. In 1803, James Monroe was appointed a special envoy to France to assist Liv­ ingston.

At first Napoleon had planned to take possession of Louisiana. Several circumstances combined to cause him to change his mind. The first was the failure of the French to conquer the negro republic that Toussaint Louverture had established in Haiti. The second was the reports of Napoleon’s agents in America, who advised him that the United States was sure to go to war with France if Napoleon took New Orleans and that such a war was bound to result eventually in victory for the Americans. Another reason which caused Napoleon to listen to terms was the fact that war with England was imminent, for which he needed money more than a distant province. After negotiations had been going on for a time, Napoleon finally


proposed to sell not” only West Florida and New Orleans, but the whole of Louisiana. The American Ministers were not prepared for a transaction of such magnitude but they realized its importance and decided to ignore their instructions. Finally about the last of April, or the first of May, 1803, a treaty was concluded by which the whole of Louisiana was ceded to the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars.

But little was known of the vast territory of the Mississippi, except that around the mouth of the Missouri, and the first thought of President Jefferson was to have it explored. The earliest and most important expeditions into the great unknown country which the nation had just purchased were led by officers of the regular army. The first expedition was led by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Captain William Clark. It was planned by Jefferson and authorized by Congress. The instructions given by Lewis and Clark were voluminous. They were to ascertain the most advantageous places for the location of trading posts with the Indians, they were to ascend the Mis­souri river to its source and then cross the continent to the Pacific and they were to report carefully on the fauna and flora of the country traversed, on the geography and physical characteristics of the country and on its human inhabitants. The notebooks of Lewis are a model of what an explorer’s notebook should be, containing drawings and descriptions of places and of the life of the country traversed.

The expedition started from St. Louis in May, 1804, and reached the mouth of the Kansas river June 26th. July 4, 1804, was celebrated by the firing of a gun and the issue of an extra gill of whiskey to each man. Their camp on this date was at the mouth of a stream which they named Independence creek, in honor of the day, and which is still known by that name. The town of Doniphan, Kansas, now stands near this camp site. A quotation from the journal of Sergeant Charles Floyd for this date is of interest.

“Behind this wood is an extensive Praria open and High which may be Seen Six or Seven miles below saw Great number of Goslins today nearly Grown the Last mentioned prairie I Call Jo. Fields Snake prairie Captain Lewis walked on Shore we camped at one of the Butifules Prairies I ever Saw open and butterfly Divided with Hills and valleys all presenting themselves.” •

This and other passages show the great interest taken and efforts made to record what was seen by every member of the expedition who could write. Several of them kept daily journals that are very valuable and interesting.

The expedition continued to follow the Missouri and in November reached a point near the Knife river in North Dakota


where Fort Mandan was erected and the winter was spent. Fort Mandan was named for the Mandan Indians who had a village at that point. In the spring the explorers continued westward and were now getting into a country that no white man had explored. The Spanish had frequently crossed the continent farther to the south and British-America had been explored to the Pacific but the northwestern part of the United States was still unknown. The headwaters of the Missouri were reached in August, 1805. From there they crossed the Bitterroot trains in Montana and spent the winter of 1805-06 near the mouth of the Columbia river.

In March of 1806, the return journey was started. In July the party was split for a time. Clark descended the Yellow­ stone and Lewis the Missouri until they met at the point where these two rivers joined. In September of 1806, the expedition reached St. Louis.

The explorations of Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike started before Lewis and Clark reached St. Louis on their return journey and while Pike’s expeditions were inferior as such, they had a more immediate influence on the development of the Great Plains country. The results of Pike’s explorations were known long before those of Lewis and Clark and resulted in immediate trade and development. Pike’s first expedition was up the Mississippi with the object of exploring the sources of that river and to demonstrate to the Indians and British fur traders that the authority of the United States over that region was actual. The start was made in August, 1805, and the winter was spent in what is now the state of Minnesota. Pike held various councils with the Indians and caused the American flag to be substituted for the British at all trading posts where the latter was displayed. He returned to St. Louis in April, 1806.

In June, 1806, Pike received instructions from General Wil­kinson, Governor of Louisiana, to start on another expedition which led to a more detailed exploration of the territory now included in Kansas than had ever before been attempted. This expedition started from Belle Fontaine, the military post of St. Louis, July 15, 1806. The first part of the journey led up the Osage river to some Osage Indian towns. From there the explorers went overland to a large Pawnee village, known as the Pawnee Republic, near the Republican river. The route of Pike led through a point on the head of Elm creek in Allen County, Kansas, near LaHarpe, across the Neosho between Iola and Neosho Falls to a point on Eagle creek near the east line of Lyon County, across the Verdigris to the Upper Cottonwood and across the Smoky Hill near Bridgeport, in Saline County. The Smoky Hill river was reached on the 17th of September. On the 18th the expedition camped on Covert creek near Min-


neapolis, where it was met a few days later by a delegation of Indians from the Republican Pawnee town. This village has been located on the south side of the Republican river in Republic County.

The Pawnee Indians were divided into four bands, the Grand Pawnees, the Republican Pawnees, Pawnee. Loups and Tapage Pawnees.

At this point in the narrative the author was uncertain from the evidence available whether the Republican River got its name from the Republican Pawnees or whether the converse was true. Accordingly a letter was written to The Secretary of the Kansas State Historical Society, William. E. Connelley, author of “Kansas and Kansans,” and as his reply is of considerable interest it is reproduced before.

“I think there is no doubt that the Republican River received its name from the residence along its banks of the Republican Pawnee band. It might be difficult to determine how this band of Indians received the name ‘Republican.’

“The Republican band was a seceding band and made some innovations on the ancient methods of choosing chiefs. I think it will develop finally, that the French on this account, gave them the name of Republican Pawnees, although I have nothing to support this view.”

The Smoky Hill River received its •name from the haze that was frequently visible over the Smoky Hills and was so named by the Indians. At the Pawnee Republic an incident occurred that has been made much of. in the annals.of Kansas history.

The sale of Louisiana to the United States was not in accord with the wishes of Spain and the activity Jefferson ‘s exploration of the newly acquired territory caused apprehensions in Mexico. The Spaniards learned of Pike’s proposed expedition before it started and organized one of their own to counteract it. This Spanish force reached the Republican Pawnee town a short time ahead of1 Pike, secured the allegiance of the Pawnees and left their flags. On the day of Pike’s council with the Indians he observed one of these flags at the door of the chief’s lodge. Pike demanded that the flag be given to him and that the American flag be received and raised in its place. The Indians refused to do this, having been more impressed by the Spanish cavalry and their pomp than by the little force of Pike. The demand was repeated and Pike told them that their nation could not have two fathers; that they must either be children of Spain or America. Finally the flag was given up and the flag of the United States was raised. On the 29th of September, 1906, the people of Republic City held a centennial celebration at the site of Pike’s Pawnee village to


commemorate this event. (The village site is about two miles from the Republic and is marked by a monument) .

On the 7th of October, Pike left the Pawnee town and followed the Pawnee trail to the Arkansas River, passing through Jewell, Mitchell, Lincoln, Russell, Ellsworth and Barton counties. The expedition reached Arkansas near Great Bend on the 18th of October. Here Pike dispatched a lieutenant and five men to return to St.. Louis and report on the results of the expedition up to that time. With the remainder, Pike continued· westward along the river to the site of the present Pueblo, Colorado, where. he erected a small fort. From there he set out to ascend a mountain that he called “Grand Peak ” but which has since become famous by the name of Pike’s Peak. He did not succeed in climbing the mountain. From Pueblo, Pike penetrated the territory claimed by the Spanish in New Mexico, was arrested and taken into Mexico. After a month or so he was released and returned to Texas, arriving at Natchitoches, July I. 1807. The account of his explorations was published in 1810.

The expeditions of Marquette, La Salle, Lewis and Clark, and Pike were the most important of those made into the territory of Louisiana. Coronado’s expedition is interesting, but it had no influence on the development of the country. Follow• ing Pike there were several other visits of exploration mad, into Kansas and the surrounding country, Major Stephen H. Long’s expedition of 1819 and 1820 being the next one sent out, the object of which was to secure scientific information. This expedition is unique in that it was the }first one made to that country by steam boat. The boat was unable to navigate the Kansas River on account of an .excessive amount of mud near its mouth but did proceed up the Missouri River at least as far as Council Bluffs. Major Long’s party made few discoveries of any importance. It gathered much scientific data, obtained considerable knowledge of the various Indian tribes encountered and, so far as is known, the members of this party were the first Americans to climb Pikes Peak.

Captain John C. Fremont made several explorations of the Great Plains country in the 1940s. On his first expedition in 1842 Kit Carson was his guide. The accounts of his journeys are interesting but little of importance resulted from them. One amusing incident of his second trip is; of interest to mili­tary readers. Prior to the start of this expedition Fremont secured a brass howitzer from General S. W. Kearny at St. Louis. This he planned to take with him. While he was waiting at Kansas Landing, which is now Kansas City, Mis­souri, he received a letter from his wife urging him to depart. at once and complete his arrangements at Fort Bent. This he


did and did not learn until some time later that the War Department had summoned him to Washington to explain why he was taking a brass cannon on a scientific expedition. His wife, like a dutiful army officer’s wife, did not forward the summons but sent her ·order for him to start at once.

Having followed the most important of the efforts made to acquire a more detailed and exact knowledge of the newest territory to be added to the United States it may be of interest to learn something of the early government of that territory and the manner in which it was later divided.

There were three centers of population in the old Louisiana purchased by Jefferson. The oldest and largest was that about New Orleans, another about the Arkansas Post and the third around St. Louis. By an act of Congress March 26, I 804, there was created the Territory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana. The Territory of Orleans included all of Louisiana east of the Mississippi and all west of the Mississippi and south of the thirty-third parallel. It later developed into the State of Louisiana.

The District of Louisiana was attached to the Territory of Indiana for judicial purposes and Major Amos Stoddard was made Governor with headquarters at St. Louis, then the capital of the District. Two of the centers of population referred to above were in the District of Louisiana and each was destined to develop into a state. That about Arkansas Post became the State of Arkansas and that about St. Louis became the State of Missouri. ,

The District of Louisiana became the Territory of Louisiana by an Act of Congress dated March 3, 1805. General James Wilkinson became Governor and Military Commandant. After the expedition of ½ewis and Clark, Lewis was made Governor, succeeding Wilkinson. June 4, 1812, the Territory of Louis­iana became the Territory of Missouri. William Clark, the same Clark that accompanied Lewis on his expedition, became the first Governor of the new territory.

For a long time there was no direct local government with jurisdiction over the territory that was later to become Kan­ sas. June 30, 1834, Congress erected all the territory west of Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana into the “Indian Country.” The “Indian Country” was attached to Missouri for judicial purposes. This condition continued to exist for twenty years before Kansas acquired an entity of its own.



Most of the early explorers in the West followed the courses of rivers in their expeditions. This was natural as a knowledge of waterways has always been one of the first essentials to the development of new and unknown lands. Life has followed the shores and streams of the world from time immemorial. Man first lived and traveled along the streams because they provided food and transportation. The ancient Indian village sites discovered in the vicinity of Fort Riley have been found along the banks of creeks and the implements unearthed reveal the fact that these ancient people cultivated the soil along those streams, probably because of its superior fertility as compared to land further from the source of water. As man developed and traveled more, at first following streams and shores, he gradually began to cut across from one stream to another in his visits of commerce or warfare. Thus, certain overland routes between waterways became known.

In the central part of North America, the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers were important waterways. On the Missouri the logical point of departure for the Southwest was the mouth of the Kansas River. This was the nearest point on the Missouri to the Great Plains. Between this point and the old Spanish lands of New and Old Mexico stretched a trail, ancient and well traveled before Coronado passed over it on his journey to Quivira. While the Santa Fe Trail, as such, was not in existence until the white men map it, old Indian traditions indicate that there was a prehistoric highway to and from the Southwest. It has been conclusively established that it was a common pathway for Indians hundreds of years ago.

In the early part of the Nineteenth Century the Santa Fe

Trail extended from Independence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. It left Independence by two or three routes, but the junction of the Oregon and California trails was near the present town of Gardner in Johnson County. It passed through Palmyra (later a part of Baldwin) in Douglas County, to Willow Springs, Overbrook and Burlingame. A portion of Santa Fe Avenue in Burlingame represents the course of the trail. From there the trail crossed Dragoon Creek, passed through Wilmington and, dropping to the southwest, followed a few miles north of the present line of the Missouri Pacific Railroad to Council Grove.



This was a noted stopping place. There was an Indian agency or trading post there and for many years it! was the only place where supplies could be obtained between the Missouri River and Santa Fe. Main Street in Council Grove marks the exact course of the trail and the bridge over the Neosho in the center of town marks the location of the ford. No one knows how long this ford has been used. Many people have believed that part of Coronado’s expedition crossed here. This belief is strengthened by the fact that pieces of chain mail and other relics have been found near there.

Departures of trains from their eastern starting points were more or less irregular but at Council Grove an organization was always made. This was done for mutual protection and division of labor. The first caravans to reach Council Grove waited there until a sufficient number had arrived to make up a train. While waiting, they rested their animals, overhauled their transportation, and cut and prepared timbers and lumber to be used in making repairs along the road, as there was no timber of any size available between that point and Santa Fe. Often a nicely prepared log or pole would be carried all the way from Council Grove to Santa Fe and back, lashed underneath a wagon. When a sufficient number of traders had arrived at Council Grove, they held a meeting and elected a leader, or captain, of the train. The train was then organized into divisions and for each division a subordinate leader, or lieutenant, was selected. The captain’s duty was to direct the order of travel. select camp sites, and take general command. The division leader rode in advance, inspected the road and crossings and took charge of the encampment of his division at night. From some accounts, it is evident that the trains were preceded by a small advance guard of three or four men. Guards were posted every night according to a roster. Sometimes there was a second in command for each division, as well as a chaplain and a court of three members for the entire train.

Leaving Council Grove, the trail split for a few miles, one branch following the divide to the north of Elm Creek and the other following the creek valley. These branches united a little southeast of Wilsey and the trail passed westward a few miles north of the town of Diamond Springs and about six miles south of Herington, then to a spring called “Lost Spring” about two miles west of the town of Lost Springs. From there the trail led west, passing near the towns of Ramona and Tampa where it turned southwest and followed approximately the present line of the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad to Canton and across Dry Turkey Creek about five miles south of McPherson. The trail thru Rice County was almost due east and west passing less than a mile south of Lyons


and on to the Great Bend of the Arkansas where it rounded the bend and turned southwest near the present town of Great Bend. It passed through the present Larned and old Fort Larned reservation and across the Pawnee River. From here to Fort Dodge there were two routes, one following the Arkansas, touching Big Coon Creek near Garfield, while the other passed Fort Larned and led southwest, sometimes as much as ten miles from the river. From Garfield the southern, or river route, kept between the Arkansas and Big Coon Creek, passing the sites of Nettleton and Kinsley. This was the older route and followed the north bank of the river to Fort Dodge. The northern branch of the trail was some distance (6 to 10 miles) north of the river all the way to Fort Dodge, near which place the two routes came together. From this point near Fort Dodge, the trail followed the north side of the river, through Dodge City and near the “Caches” five miles west of the city. In Ford County there was another route that was sometimes used in seasons of plentiful water. It crossed the Arkansas near the mouth of Mulberry Creek and extended up that creek to the southwest.

The old trail. after leaving Ford County, followed along the north side of the Arkansas River, past the present towns of Cimarron and Ingalls and along the route now followed by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad to the point where the trail turned southwest to Santa Fe via Trinidad and Raton Pass.

There were three crossings of the Arkansas River used in various routes to Santa Fe. The first was near the mouth of Mulberry Creek in Ford County. This was called the “Lower Crossing.” The “Middle Crossing,” or “Cimarron Crossing,” was near the present town of Cimarron. From this crossing the trail led southwest to the North Fork of the Cimarron River which it crossed and then followed up the Cimarron, sometimes on one side and sometimes on the other, through Colorado and Oklahoma to the northeast corner of New Mexico. The Cimarron branch of the trail was the shortest route to Santa Fe.

The “Upper Crossing” was at Chouteau Island, near the present town of Hartland, in Kearny County, from which point the trail led south to the Cimarron.

The town of Santa Fe was settled about 1610. During the most flourishing days of the Santa Fe trade it had a population of about three thousand. Because of its location, it was the logical point for trading between Missouri, or the old Louisiana, and the southwest. When the Spaniards owned Louisiana they attempted to develop overland trade between


New Mexico and their province but apparently these attempts were rather half-hearted for nothing ever came of them.

Various sporadic attempts were made to establish trade between Missouri and New Mexico but the first successful trip was made in 1821 by Captain William Becknell.

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