THE  HISTORY OF FORT RILEY Part 8

. and detachments of Engrs.. Sig. and Hosp. Corps.

During this camp the Redoubt was constructed by the Third Battalion of Engineers and they also supervised the construction of a permanent bridge over the Kansas River. The Redoubt was tested in September. 1907. by the Sixth Field Artillery to learn the effects of HE shell and shrapnel on a prepared position. In 1909, Battery A was selected to handle the new ordinance in the attack of the redoubts (the second redoubt, now known as Redoubt No. 2, having been constructed for this test). The object of these tests was to determine the efficiency of the different types of field cannon proposed for adoption in the field artillery. The ordnance tested, consisted of the 3.8 ” field howitzer, the 4.7 ” field howitzer, the 6″ howitzer the 3″ gun, the 3.8″ gun. the 4.7″ gun and the 3″ mountain howitzer. Battery A, under command of Captain Birnie, did this firing in October, 1909.

A vegetable’ storehouse (Building 161) and one set of non­ commissioned officers’ quarters ( 125) were constructed in 1906.

Colonel Edward S. Godfrey was promoted to Brigadier­ General January 18, 1907. but continued as Commandant.

The position of Director of the School of Cavalry was successively held by the following officers: Lieutenant­ Colonel James Parker till October 3, 1906; Major George H. Morgan, 9th Cavalry. from October 3 to December I 3. 1906; Major Walter L. Finley, 9th Cavalry, December 13, 1906, to March 9, 1907; Colonel Peter S. Bomus, 9th Cavalry, March 9 to April 19, 1907; Lieutenant-Colonel Walter L. Finley, 13th Cavalry, April 19 to July I. 1907; Colonel

F. K. Ward, 7th Cavalry, to the end of the school year.

Major Eli D. Hoyle was Director of the School of Artillery until September 30, 1906, when he was relieved by Lieutenant-Colonel Montgomery M. Macomb of the Artillery Corps.

(Photo loaned by Zellner, Junction City)

East Half of Redoubt in 1907


(Photo loaned by Zellner, Junction City)

High Water on the Golden Belt

244 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

Captain William J. Snow, Artillery Corps, was Secretary of the School until June 30, 1907, when Captain George H. Cameron, Fourth Cavalry, again became Secretary.

The following were instructors:

Equitation-Captain Walter C. Short until June 23, 1907, when he left for Saumur, France. Captain Guy V. Henry, who had been at Saumur, was due to take charge in September. In the interim Second Lieutenant Joseph F. Taulbee was in charge.

Hippology-Veterinarians Alexander Plummer, Fourth Cavalry, and C. H. Jewell, Artillery Corps. Dr. Jewell came to the School in I 905 and took the course in Equitation in 1905-06, being the first Veterinarian to take a course at the School.

Horseshoeing-Eugene A. Dowd and Frank Churchill, both civilians.

Forage-Veterinarian Plummer.

Q. M. Harness and Transportation-Captain W. J. Snow, Artillery, and Edward Stone, Master of Transportation, Q.M.D.

Topography-Captain George H. Cameron.

Cavalry Pioneer Duties-Major Thomas H. Rees and Captain E. M. Adams, C. of E., casually at the Post constructing the bridge across the Kansas River. .

Tactics-Captain J. D. L. Hartman, First Cavalry, and Captain Fox Connor, Artillery.

In the Training School for Bakers and Cooks, Captain

D. B. Case, Commissary, had relieved Captain A. M. Edwards.

1907 was the first year in which foreign officers attended a school at Fort Riley, the students being Major Samuel J. Galvez, Infantry, from Guatemala, and First Lieutenants Felipe Neri and Loretto Howell, Cavalry, and Rodolfo Ca­sillas and Arturo· Certucha, Artillery, from Mexico.

On February 2, 1907, the War Department published to the Army, for its information and guidance, an Act of Congress, approved January 25, 1907, entitled, “AN ACT to reorganize and increase the efficiency of the Artillery of the United States Army.” To carry out the provisions of Section 7 of this Act, the War Department issued General Orders No.

118. dated May 31. 1907. This order organized the Field Artillery into six regiments and directed that the Sixth Regiment of Field Artillery be organized as Horse Artillery at Fort Riley, Kansas.

The following batteries were assigned and grouped into two permanent battalions:

First Battalion. The 2d Battery of Field Artillery became

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 245

Battery A, the 22d Battery became Battery B and the 25th Battery became Battery C.

Second Battalion. The 7th Battery of Field Artillery became Battery D, the 20th Battery became Battery E and the 21st Battery became Battery F.

It was directed that the Regimental Band should be organized without delay by the regimental commander.

Paragraph 21, Special Orders, No. 132, W. D., Washington, June 6, 1907, made the following assignment of officers:

  1. Headquarters, Staff and Band.

Colonel Montgomery M. Macomb. Colonel Macomb was in command of the Artillery Sub-Post at Fort Riley, but when the order was received he was absent at Fort Leavenworth, delivering a course of lectures to student officers there on the Russo-Japanese War. He assumed command of the regiment June 12th.

Lieutenant Colonel Eli D. Hoyle. Colonel Hoyle was sick in quarters at Fort Riley with a broken leg caused by a fall of his horse while riding about the reservation.

Captains William Lassiter, William J. Snow, W. B. Carr, Upton Birnie and R. W. Briggs. Captain Lassiter and Snow were on duty at Fort Riley, Captain Lassiter as a member of the Field Artillery Board and Captain Snow as Secretary of the School. Captain Snow gave up the office of Secretary in order that he might become Regimental Adjutant.

Veterinarians C. H. Jewell and G. A. Hanvey: Both the above were on duty at Fort Riley at the time of assignment. Hanvey was transferred to the Sixth Cavalry, July 20th, and was replaced by Veterinarian A. E. Donovan.

  1. First Battalion. Major Peyton C. March.

Battery A, Captain D. T. Moore. 1st Lieutenants J. E. Myers, R. McT. Pennell and L. H. McKinlay.

Battery B, Captain L. T. Boiseau and 1st Lieutenant G. R.

Allin. Lieutenant Allin was stationed at the Post, on duty as aide to Brigadier-General Godfrey, but devoted his spare time to work with the battery until General Godfrey was retired October 9, 1907. Lieutenant Cortlandt Parker was appointed 1st Lieutenant, Field Artillery, from 2d Lieutenant, Fifth Cavalry, and joined Battery B, August 25, 1907.

Battery C, Captain William S. McNair. Captain McNair was appointed Regimental Quartermaster July 1st and Captain Carr was assigned to the battery. 1st Lieutenants E. H. De­ Armond and J. W. Riley.

  1. Second Battalion.

Major John E. McMahon. He was also a member of the Field Artillery Board.

246 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

Battery D. Captain C. R. Lloyd. He became Battalion Adjutant of the Second Battalion August 25, 1907, and Cap­ tain R. W. Briggs was assigned to Battery D. 1st Lieutenants

C. J. Ferris and Charles Roemer.

Battery E. Captain C. C. Pulis was assigned but effected a mutual transfer with Captain Edward Hill, who reported August 7, 1907. 1st Lieutenant F. B. (Spike) Hennessy was in command until Captain Hill joined when he left for Fort Sheridan to join the Fourth Field Artillery. 1st Lieutenant Rene E. DeRussy Hoyle was appointed 1st Lieutenant in the Field Artillery, from 2d Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry and joined the battery August 30, 1907. 1st Lieutenant Henry L. Harris was appointed from civil life by examination and joined the battery in August.

Battery F. Captain J. W. Kilbreth. 1st Lieutenant Beverly

F. Browne was Quartermaster and Commissary of the 1st Battalion and Acting Regimental Commissary. 1st Lieutenant

P. D. Glassford was assigned to the battery but was on special duty mapping the reservation and was detailed as Assistant Instructor in the Department of Drawing at West Point in August. 1st Lieutenant R.H. Lewis joined August 27, 1907.

  1. Chaplain Charles M. Brewer joined November 2, 1907. The following extracts from General Godfrey’s report for

1907 are of interest:

“On July 2, I forwarded to the Adjutant General of the Army a proposed revision of the regulations governing the school, to supersede those published in General Orders, No. 133, War Department, 1906. Accompanying it was the following memorandum of principal changes and reasons there­ for:

  1. Name changed to Mounted Service School.

Reasons: Shorter, and more expressive of the proposed functions of the School.

  1. Abolishing the School of Cavalry and School of Field Artillery.

Reasons: Formerly when the cavalry organizations stationed at this post were from various regiments, and the batteries were independent, some such scheme was necessary, but now that complete regiments are to be stationed here there is no longer any reason for retaining the names.

  1. Virtual separation of the Mounted Service School from the post. Reasons: Experience here, and the example of the School at Leavenworth, show that this is essential to progress. On account of conditions at this post, however, it is necessary that the Commandant be post commander.

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  1. Creation of the position of Assistant Commandant, who will be in immediate charge of the Training Schools.

Reason: Essential to the coordination of the various branches. The Assistant Commandant, by giving his entire time to the work of the Training Schools and by relieving the Commandant of routine matters of detail. should be a most potent factor in the development of the School.

  1. School year begins September 1st. During months of September and October detailed officers to be assigned to organizations of the other arms.

Reasons: To conform to the school year of the other Service Schools. Necessary if officers are to be sent to this school from Leavenworth or vice versa. Service with the other arm will be extremely valuable to the individual officer and to the service at large. If the scheme of attaching officers to the other arm be adopted, it is essential that they be so attached at the beginning of the School year. To attach them at the end of the School year after a hard winter’s work would tend to cause laxness and would secure very limited results.

  1. Introducing Baking and Cooking in the school course for officers.

Reason: An abridged course in these subjects should be of immense value to the interior economy of organizations.

  1. Forming a class of noncommissioned officers as under­ studies to the detailed officers.

Reason: In order that the service may derive the full benefit of the services of the graduates of this school as instructors in the regiments, it is necessary that noncommissioned officers be detailed as assistants.”

“The plans for foresting the reservation have progressed quite satisfactorily. Strips one hundred feet wide and aggregating about fourteen and a half miles in length were plowed just below the military crests of ridges on the upland prairie, having in view the screening of military movements.

“About 17.000 trees have been transplanted.

“Elm, hackberry, catalpa, honey locust, black locust, box elder, ash, Russian mulberry. cottonwood and longleaf pine were the principal varieties planted.

“About six bushels of acorns and a half bushel of hack­ berries were planted on the slopes of Sherman Heights, Sheri­ dan Bluffs, and other hillsides in the vicinity of the post, and cedar berries were planted in the various draws on the reservation.”

An innovation this year was the course in tactics but, in spite of progress made, General Godfrey was convinced that such theoretical instruction was out of place in a practical school.

248 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

The following buildings were erected in 1907: School stable (126), one gun shed (156), one stable guard (158), one artillery barracks (159) , one set of bachelor officers’ quarters (Randolph Hall), one set of field officers’ quarters

( 162) , and the old polo bungalow on Marshall Field (168) .

Between 1903, when the old bridge over the Kansas River in rear of the present Veterinary Hospital was washed out, and 1907, there had been a pontoon bridge maintained at a point about 1,200 yards southwest of the present Engineer Bridge. In 1907, a bridge was erected where the present bridge is. The piers were steel cylinders, filled with cement, and the superstructure was entirely of wood. This bridge remained until after the World War when it was remodeled with material brought from France and took its present form.

Until the opening of the Mounted Service School. The saddle-bred horse was considered best suited for cavalry but with the beginning of 1908 the thoroughbred began to be favored.

1907 was the end of the School of Application for Cavalry and Light Artillery. It had had its day and had served its purpose well as a step in the evolution of our military educational system.

CHAPTER XII

THE MOUNTED SERVICE SCHOOL

Being in doubt concerning the origin of the names of some of the well known spots on the reservation the writer had written a letter to Brigadier-General Granger Adams U. S. A., retired. The General, together with Lieutenant-Colonel Beverly Browne, very kindly furnished the following information:

“In 1901 there were only three or four names to points on the hills north of Riley, but beginning about 1905, when in­ direct laying for artillery became the rule, it was necessary to designate points in order to pick up aiming points and, I believe, most of the names of Field Artillery origin came about in that way.

“Caisson Hill. A caisson loaded with fixed ammunition, both shrapnel and H. E. the shell was put on this hill and used as a target to determine the effect that would be produced by explosions in the caisson. The target was completely destroyed and remnants were noticeable on the hill for a good many years, hence the name. The gun pits that you speak of were made some time after this experiment. (Author’s note: About a couple of hundred yards south of the top of Caisson Hill and near the head of one of the branches of Magazine Canyon, there is a row of stone gun emplacements. These are the gun pits referred to above and about which the writer inquired in his letter to General Adams).

“Artillery Hill. This hill was a favorite artillery position for training, for service practice, and for gunners’ instruction. Three or four trails led up over the rim rock from Pawnee Flats in the vicinity of this hill. I presume it was named Ar­ tillery Hill, because it was nearly always occupied during training hours by a battery of Artillery.

“22nd Battery Hill. The 22nd Battery, Field Artillery, camped just below this hill one spring, about 1905, for pistol practice and gunners’ instruction. During the encampment the soldiers put the name of the organization in very large letters and figures of white stones on the side of the hill. This was visible from nearly all high points on the reservation. Parts of it were frequently used for aiming points and the hill became known as 22nd Battery Hill.”

249

250 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

There is a story to the effect that 22nd Battery Hill is so called because the men of that battery dragged their guns to the top of the hill. That story is not entirely true and is based on the fact that during one of the maneuver camps at Fort Riley, the men of the 20th Battery, in their zeal to get a commanding position, did drag their guns up a steep and inaccessible hill and fire from there. Whether that was the same hill or not, could not be determined.

Taylor Point was named for Colonel Sidney W. Taylor, who was Director of the Artillery School from 1904-1906.

The name of Sheridan Bluffs was discarded and one end of the bluff called Sheridan Point and the other Pawnee Point. The names of Saddle Back, Deep Canyon, Long Draw, Four Way Divide, Backstop Ridge, Pump House Canyon, Magazine Canyon, Break Neck Canyon, Republican Point, Lone Tree, Wild Glen and North Gate need no explanation. Rock Spring Canyon was named for Rock Spring. That spring was one of the first places on the reservation to be named. Until recent years, haymakers always had a camp at the spring north of Morris Hill, at the head of Forsyth Canyon, and the spring was known as Hay Camp Spring. At the suggestion of Colonel Hamilton Hawkins and Brigadier­ General Malin Craig, the name was changed about 1923 to Cameron Spring in honor of Colonel George H. Cameron. Bell Spring was named for Lieutenant J. Franklin Bell, the first Secretary of the School, Sherman Heights for General Sherman and Custer Hill for General Custer. Wolf and Coyote Canyons were so named because they were the places

in which coyotes were most frequently seen.

The writer also addressed a letter to Colonel George H. Cameron requesting information concerning the origin of the coat of arms of the school and some of the names of places. The following extracts are from that letter:

“The coat of arms was designed by me, as Assistant Commandant, in 1909, without orders or suggestions.

“The original design had two half fields, one of red and one of yellow, symbolizing the two branches of the ‘Mounted Service School.’ Between them was a dovetailed fess’ indicating the close union and co-operation.

“In one field was a winged spur for the Department of Equitation and in the other a winged horse’s hoof for the Department of Hippology. At that time little else was taught. The horse’s head for a crest symbolized the mounted service. The motto I coined, ‘We thrive by mobility,’ means that both arms are worthless if not highly mobile.

“When, after the World War, the school was reorganized for cavalry only, I changed the coat of arms to accord. The

The Mounted Service School Coat of Arms

The Cavalry School Coat of Arms

252 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

field is yellow only. The saber is for the Department of Weapons; the winged spur for the Department of Equitation; the book and student’s lamp for theoretical subjects. There was no necessity for changing the crest nor the motto.

“Names of features on the Riley reservation have grown with the school. When I first came to the post with the 7th Cavalry in 1887, the flats and creeks had their present names except Forsyth Creek (a branch of Three Mile Creek extending up Forsyth Canyon) named after the first commandant about 1893. •

“For field exercises other places acquired names in order to facilitate descriptions in orders. Those shown on my hastily prepared map for the maneuvers of 1904 were all then existing.

“Upon the map of the completed instrumental survey I recorded all commonly accepted names for the sake of convenience. I personally added the name of Macomb.

“Captain Henry, as Senior Instructor of Equitation, after his return from Saumur, started the controlled cross country rides and was the first to use the canyon now called Break Neck. The name became common through student talk.

“No orders concerning names were issued until recently.”

October 9, 1907, Brigadier-General Edward S. Godfrey was retired and Colonel Frederick K. Ward, Seventh Cavalry, became Acting Commandant. Godfrey Court and Ward Hall are named for these officers. May 4, 1908, Brigadier-General John B. Kerr became Commandant.

In the preceding chapter the various commandants and di­ rectors of the School of Application for Cavalry and Field Artillery were mentioned, as well as some of the secretaries. In order that the list may be complete the secretaries of the school from the time of its establishment to 1908 are here given:

First Lieut. J. F. Bell, 7th Cavalry, January 1. 1893, to December 13, 1894.

First Lieut. T. R. Rivers, 3d Cavalry, December 14, 1894, to August 7, 1895.

First Lieut. W. S. Scott, 1st Cavalry, September 13, 1895, to April 16, 1898.

Captain John Baxter, Jr., 1st Cavalry, April 17, 1898, to May 15, 1898.

Chaplain Thomas W.W. Barry, May 17, 1898, to December 1. 1898.

First Lieut. P. E. Traub, 1st Cavalry, December 1. 1898, to January 2, 1899.

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First Lieut. F. C. Marshall, 6th Cavalry, January 2, 1899, to March 25, 1900.

First Lieut. John R. Furlong, 6th Cavalry, March 25, 1900, to June 14, 1900.

Second Lieut. A.G. Lott, 8th.Cavalry, June 15, 1900, to July 5, 1901.

Captain P. R. Ward, Art. Corp.s., July 6, 1901, to September 14, 1901.

First Lieut. L. R. Holbrook, 4th Cavalry, October 17, 1901, to December 31, 1901.

Captain James B. Erwin, Adjt. 4th Cavalry, October 24, 1902, to March 3, 1903.

Captain S. McP. Rutherford, 4th Cavalry, May 4, 1903, to June 9, 1903, and September 7, 1903, to September 13,

!903.

Captain F. T. Arnold, 4th Cavalry, June 10, 1903, to September 2, 1903; October 13, 1903, to November 1, 1903. Captain John T. Haines, 11th Cavalry, August 24, 1904,

to October 12, 1904.

Captain Geo. H. Cameron, 4th Cavalry, September 14, 1901, to October 16, 1901; January 1, 1902, to October

14, 1902; November 1, 1903, to August 24, 1904; October

12, 1904, to December 31, 1905; July 1, 1907, to June 21,

1908.

Captain Wm. J. Snow, Artillery, January, 1905, until July 1, 1907.

The proposed’ revision of regulations governing the school, made by General Godfrey, July 2, 1907, was approved practically as recommended, and was published in General Orders, No. 191, War Department, dated September 13, 1907.

The following extracts from General Orders, No. 66, Headquarters, Fort Riley, Kansas, dated September 26, 1907, are of interest:

“General Orders, No. 58, C. S., these headquarters, are rescinded, and the following orders substituted therefor are published for the information and guidance of all persons on this military reservation.

By command of Brigadier-General Godfrey.

ERNEST HINDS,

Adjutant General.

“1. GENERAL OFFICIAL DESIGNATIONS, ETC.

“a. The official designation of this command is Fort Riley, Kansas.

“b. The official designation of the cavalry command 1s Seventh Cavalry, Fort Riley, Kansas.

“c. The official designation of the artillery command 1s Sixth Field Artillery, Fort Riley, Kansas.

254 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

“d. The official designation of the Schools for detailed officers and men is-Mounted Service School. Fort Riley, Kansas.

* * * * * * * * * *

“g. The Adjutant General is the custodian of the records of the Post and its personnel; conducts the correspondence of

the Post and issues all instructions and orders of the General Officer Commanding.

“h. The Secretary of the Mounted Service School is the custodian of the books and property, and disburses the funds of the Mounted Service School. He is recorder of the School Board, conducts the correspondence of the Mounted Service School. and, as the Adjutant of the command embraced in that school. issues the orders and instructions of the Assistant Commandant.”

Captain George H. Cameron, Fourth Cavalry, was the first Assistant Commandant and was also Secretary until June 21. 1908, when First Lieutenant Robert M. Danford, Fifth Field Artillery, joined the School.

The instructors in the various departments of the School were as follows:

EQUITATION AND HORSE TRAINING-Senior Instructor, Captain Guy V. Henry. He left August 18, 1908, for the

U. S. M. A., and Captain Walter C. Short, who had been at Saumur, was ordered to join.

Instructors-Captain H. R. Richmond, in charge of property, horses, stables and pastures of the Department of Equitation. 1st Lieutenant Gordon Johnston and 2d Lieutenants Joseph F. Taulbee and Daniel D. Tompkins.

HIPPOLOGY-Under the direction of 1st Lieutenant Duncan Elliot, in charge of Training School for Farriers and Horse­ shoers. Assistant, 2d Lieutenant Emil Engel.

instructors-Veterinarian·s Alexander Plummer and Charles

H. Jewell.

HoRSESHOEING-Under the direction of 1st Lieutenant Duncan Elliot.

Instructor-Frank Churchill, Chief Farrier, Q. M. D., U. S.

A. (Author’s note: In April, 1907, Mr. Churchill, then assistant instructor, was made an instructor vice Eugene A. Dowd, who resigned).

PACKING-Under the direction of the Senior Instructor in Equitation.

Instructor-Peter McFarland, Packmaster, Q. M. D.,

U.S. A.

FORAGE. Instructor-Veterinarian Alexander Plummer.

HARNESS AND TRANSPORTATION-Under the direction of the Assistant Commandant.

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Instructor-Charles R. Ruffel, Acting Superintendent of Transportation, Q. M. D., U. S. A.

BAKING AND COOKING-Under the direction of Captain Lucius R. Holbrook, Commissary, U. S. A., in charge of the Training School for Bakers and Cooks.

Instructors-In Baking, George S. Donoho. In Cooking, Latrobe Brammell.

TOPOGRAPHY-Senior Instructor, Captain George H. Cam­ eron.

EXPLOSIVES AND PIONEER DUTIES-Senior Instructor, Captain Michael J. McDonough, C. of E.

The students of this first class at the Mounted Service School were: Captains John D. Long, R. E. McNally and Wm. M. Connell, all of Cavalry; First Lieutenants G. L. Stryker, C. R. Norton, John Cocke, G. E. Lovell and W. J. Kendrick of Cavalry, and N. E. Wood, E. S. Wheeler, Wm.

F. Jones, C. S. Blakely, E. H. DeArmond and L. H. Mc­ Kinlay of Field Artillery; Second Lieutenants M. C. Bristol,

D. D. Tompkins, J.C. Pegram, G. L. Morrison, A. M. Pope,

I. P. Swift, and A. R. Chaffee, all of the Cavalry. In addition, the five foreign officers, who had taken the 1906-1907 course, received permission to remain for the year 1907-1908.

A few brief extracts from the report of the Commandant for 1908 are of interest.

“Student officers spent 892 hours in the saddle under their instructors. Many of them owning private mounts greatly exceeded these figures. During the spring months, the daily mounted work covers 7 ,1 ⁄ 2 hours daily, but during the winter it has always been impossible to allow more than 1 ,1 ⁄ 2 hours on account of the congestion in the riding hall. The completion of the new school hall will allow a riding schedule for next year of 1,126 hours or an average of 4 3⁄4 hours daily for the 236 working days of the school year.”

Captain Guy V. Henry in his report on the Department of Equitation stated: “The aim of the instruction during the entire year has been to make the ideal mounted officer, that is, the officer who understands and can put into practice the correct principles of equitation, who knows the strength and weakness of his horses, who is a judge of the proper type of horse, who thinks and acts quickly, and who can ride fearlessly and well at full speed across any ordinary country.

“With this aim in view the course has been so arranged as to endeavor to give thorough instruction in the riding hall in breaking and training, acquiring a firm and correct seat and a proper knowledge of the use of the aids, following this up, as the students progressed, by hard and fast gallops across

256 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

country, taking such natural and artificial objects as were found in the way and by the playing of polo.

“h very large amount of the ordinary riding has been

done with the English saddle without stirrups, and most of the instruction in jumping has been done with horses thus equipped, this in order that the rider should acquire a firm seat and the proper use of the legs.” •

In the midst of our present period of stressing academic work, it might be good for us to pause and think over the words of Captain Henry. Academic instruction is good, it is essential. but let us all remember that the most brilliant tactical leader of small cavalry units years of study could produce, would be absolutely helpless if he did not have the “guts” to lead his unit, or units, hell-bent in the direction of his objective no matter what obstacles lay in his path. Theories did not take El Mughar, or Beersheba, and while no ambitious officer wants to be exclusively a show ring performer, he does want to have the knowledge that he can guide, manage, and stay with his horse over anything it is physically possible for that horse to negotiate. And the horse can go through and over places that would surprise the uninitiated. All of these remarks apply as much to the middle-aged lieutenant-colonel as to the brand new shave-tail. Theory and practice go hand in hand, but the greatest of these is practice. Quoting General Kerr’s report again, ”The vigorous horsemen of advanced years in this country are men who, with but few exceptions, have been riding continuously since youth.“

The Training School for Bakers and Cooks owes its present enviable reputation in large part to two men who came to it during this year, Captain L. R. Holbrook and Patrick Dunne. When Captain Holbrook came to take charge of the School, Dunne was a Color Sergeant in the Fifth Cavalry and had already made a reputation as a cook and as a mess sergeant. Through the efforts of Captain Holbrook, Dunne was appointed a Commissary Sergeant and placed on duty with a view to his being appointed Chief Cook to relieve “Tobe ” Brammell upon his retirement. “Pat” Dunne was a genius in his way and during his years at the School did much constructive work. He invented the portable field bake oven in use today, as well as many other appliances and, in collaboration with Captain Holbrook, assisted in the preparation of some of the manuals in present use. A tablet to the memory of Patrick Dunne has been erected near the south entrance to the bakery.

When the Bakers and Cooks School was first started, it met with scant favor on the part of organization commanders throughout the service, many of whom sent their most worth-

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 257

less men to take the course. In consequence of this, and the fact that many unassigned recruits were sent to the School, the students were rather a hard lot. In March, 1906, E. R. Bowman, now a warrant officer at Post Headquarters, was made Acting First Sergeant of the School, by order of Colonel Godfrey, with instructions to straighten the students out. Mr. Bowman told the writer of taking a check one night with a pistol when the first attempt by another sergeant had resulted in his bodily ejection from the barracks. Captain Holbrook states as follows in his report for 1908: “My Acting First Sergeant is performing all the duties of a First Sergeant and has been doing so for the past two years. He had been filling a most difficult position to my entire satisfaction.”

Captain A. B. Ames, now in command of the Bakers and Cooks School, and Mr. J. D. Whidden, Warrant Officer and Instructor, also came to the School in 1908.

Captain Ames had served at the Post from 1894 to 1898 as a member of Battery F of the Field Artille_ry under Captain

S. W. Taylor and from 1900 to 1903, first in Battery B of the Fourth Artillery, and later in the Twentieth Battery. When he left in 1903, he was a Commissary Sergeant and returned as such in 1908.

Mr. Whidden came to the Post in August, 1908, enlisted in Troop A of the Seventh Cavalry and was put on duty with the School Detachment. Later, he was made a Sergeant Instructor at the Bakers and Cooks School and, except for the World War, has been with the School ever since.

A Camp of Instruction and Maneuver was held at Fort Riley during the summer of 1908 with General Kerr in command and Major Peyton C. March, Sixth Field Artillery as Chief Umpire. The map for use at this camp, prepared by Captain George H. Cameron, by direction of General Kerr, shows all places on the reservation, named as they are now, with the exception of Camp Funston, Cameron Spring and Engineer Bridge.

At this camp. which was the last big maneuver camp, the following troops were present: 3d Bn. Engrs.; 7th Cav.; 2d Cav.; 13th Inf.; 16th Inf.; 6th Arty.; Light F. A. Regt.; 1st and 2d Inf., K. N. G.; I st, 2d and 3rd Inf.; Mo. N. G.; 1st Inf., Oklahoma; 4th Inf., So. Dakota; 53d and 54th Inf .. Iowa N. G.; and detachments of medical units, signal troops, etc.

December 26, 1908, occurred the death of Conrad Schmidt, the old range rider, and John Baldwin, now an employee of the Quartermaster, became range rider.

258 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

The following buildings were erected in 1908: Medical Department Stable at Hospital ( 163) , Veterinary Laboratory

( 164) , barracks for Cooks and Bakers ( 165) . Quartermaster storehouse (166), Granary (167). one artillery stable (157), and the West Riding Hall. The street railway was also rebuilt and extended from the vicinity of the laundry to the vicinity of Godfrey Court, following its present course.

Prior to the erection of the barracks for the Cooks and Bakers, many of the students had, for about two and one-half years, lived in tents northwest of their present quarters in the vicinity of the old street car station.

Brigadier-General John B. Kerr, U. S. A., relinquished command of the School May 20, 1909. and was placed upon the retired list at his own request after forty-three years of service. Colonel F. K. Ward, Seventh Cavalry, was Acting Commandant from May 20, 1909, to September 6, 1909. There were no changes in the offices of Assistant Commandant and Secretary.

In the Department of Equitation and Horse Training, Captain Walter •C. Short was Senior Instructor and his assistants were First Lieutenant Gordon Johnston and Second Lieutenant Joseph H. Taulbee.

There were no changes in the personnel of the instructors in Hippology, Horseshoeing, Forage, or Topography. Thomas Mooney, Packmaster, had succeeded Peter McFarland in Pack­ing, James Sanderlin, Superintendent of Corrals, succeeded Charles Ruffel as Instructor in Harness and Transportation, Second Lieutenant John C. Pegram, First Cavalry was assistant to Captain Holbrook, Post Commissary Sergeant Patrick Dunne was Instructor in Cooking and Sergeant Joseph Heu­ berger, Instructor in Baking. First Lieutenant Douglas Mac­ Arthur, C. of E.. was Instructor in Explosives and Pioneer Duties.

The roster of students in 1909 was as follows:

  1. . From the Cavalry. Captains Clyde E. Hawkins, Doug­ las McCaskey and Henry R. Richmond. First Lieutenants Daniel VanVoorhis, Louis R. Ball, J. M. Burroughs, Chris­ tian A. Bach, Eben Swift, Jr., Selwyn D. Smith, I. S. Martin. Second Lieutenants F. E. Davis, E. L. Zane, J. V. Spring, Jr.,

J. C. Montgomery and Winn Blair.

  1. From the Artillery. Captain Charles M. Bunker and 1st Lieutenants T. W. Holiday, N. E. Margetts, E. L. Gru­ber and Robert H. Lewis.

Under the regulations governing the School. A Second Year Course was authorized and 1909 marked the appearance of the first of these classes composed of the following students: Captain John D. Long; Second Lieutenants I. P. Swift, A. M.

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 259

Pope and Adna R. Chaffee of the Cavalry and First Lieutenant E. H. DeArmond, Artillery.

The only course in which the study of a text was required of officers was Hippology.

Four classes of horses were used by the student in his work in equitation. Jumpers and trained horses were ridden throughout the year by the officers in learning to ride and were not assigned to students.

About the first of November each student officer had a colt of the training class assigned him. These were colts that had received the necessary preliminary training and were ready for schooling.

The fourth class consisted of perfectly green colts, which were taken up about May 1st to be accustomed to grooming, to be gentled and ·to receive their preliminary training, which was carried only to the point where they could be ridden straight ahead at the walk, trot, and gallop. These colts went into the training class the following fall, so that, while the course for the man was one year, for the green horse it was nearly two years.

The course in horseshoeing covered the theory of army horseshoeing and two and a half hours a day for two months was given to practical work.

The following extracts from the report of Captain Hol­ brook are of interest:

“It is considered that very satisfactory progress has been made by the school during the past year, due principally to the assignment to duty as Chief Cook of Post Commissary Sergeant Patrick Dunne, who has made cooking and baking his life work. Due almost entirely to his ingenuity, the following equipment has been developed during the past year and submitted for adoption:

A very satisfactory field range (two types), an excellent knock-down continuous baking oven suitable for a regiment, A folding roof rack for regimental bakery, A folding bread rack for regimental bakery, And considerable minor equipment.

“July 1, 1909, the service detachment of the Mounted Service School was organized. There w_ere in reality two detachments, a white and a colored one. Prior to this time, there had been a detachment although it was not authorized. August 24, 1905, Warrant Officer John J. Hess, then Sergeant in the Ninth Battery, Artillery Corps, was ordered to Fort

260 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

Riley and a few days later Charles F. Mayer, then Sergeant in the Twenty-Second Battery, arrived. Both these men expected to be students, but instead, Hess was made a clerk in the unauthorized detachment and Mayer was placed in charge of Number Three Stables, which included the Veterinary Hospital and Dispensary. Sergeant Mayer has been on duty at the Veterinary Hospital continuously since then. Mr. Hess was clerk at Post Headquarters after the permanent detachment was formed and has been in the office of the Secretary since that time.

As organized in 1909, the men of the Colored Detachment were mostly employed in the Horsemanship’ Department and those of the White Detachment in various offices, as instructors, etc., about the School. Corporal Price, Sergeant Briggs, Sergeant Dorsey and others were original members of the Colored Detachment.

The first United States Army team to compete in a national horse show was organized and trained at Fort Riley in 1909, to enter the National Horse Show held at Madison Square Garden. The team consisted of the following riders and horses:

Lieutenant Eben Swift-Bill Stone, Monte, Satan. Lieutenant George M. Lee-DeRex, Spot, Captor. Lieutenant I. S. Martin-Phoenix Park, Elphine, Connie. Lieutenant J. C. Montgomery-True Dora, Rustin.

Lieutenant Gordon Johnston-John Harper, Clarence, Becky Sharp.

Captor, True Dora and John Harper wei:e owned by the riders indicated. The others belonged to the Mounted Service School. The HeavyWeight Chargers and the Military Jumping Class were won by the team, which also placed in other classes.

There was considerable construction during 1909, including the following buildings: Three sets of non-commissioned officers’ quarters (173, 174, 175), one gun shed (87), south wing of hospital. band barracks for artillery (l 69), one set of field officers’ quarters ( 170), two double sets of officers’ quarters ( 171- I 72) , quartermaster stable ( 176) , Arnold Hall, a guard house for the Artillery Post ( 178. Now the E. and R. Building), and the wireless station ( 190). At the time Arnold Hall was built, there was a fountain in the little grass plot just east of the Wounded Knee Monument. Arnold Hall must have been a very “swell” building at that time. It was fitted with individual mail slots, call bells and speaking tubes. Just outside the writer’s door is a card in one of those mail slots identifying it as belonging to Winn Blair.

. THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 261

Brigadier-General W. S. Edgerly, U. S. A., was Commandant from September 6 to September 30, 1909. Colonel Ward was Acting Commandant from September 1 to 6 and from October I, 1909, to February 28, 1910. He was promoted to the grade of brigadier-general February 26, 1910, and assigned as Commandant February 28.

George H. Cameron was promoted to the grade of Major, November 29, 1909, and continued as Assistant Commandant.

Captain Albert N. McClure, Fourth Cavalry, was placed in charge of the Training School for Farriers and Horseshoers August I, 1910. (Author’s note: Captain McClure, now Colonel, was Post Quartermaster at Fort Riley when this book was written, 1926).

Captain Tilman Campbell, Commissary, U. S. A., was appointed Assistant in the Training School for Bakers and Cooks April 19, 1910, and First Lieutenant Sherrard Coleman, Eighth Cavalry, was also made an Assistant in that School December 2, 1909.

Second Lieutenant Joseph H. Taulbee was relieved from duty as Instructor in the Department of Equitation and First Lieutenants I. S. Martin and Second Lieutenant J .C. Mont­gomery were detailed as Assistant Instructors.

The students for the 1910 course were as follows:

  1. From the Cavalry-Captains N. K. Averill, Conrad S. Babcock and A. N. McClure. First Lieutenants John Watson, Henry Gibbins, Arthur Poillon, Lewis Brown, Jr., A. F. Com­ miskey, Second Lieutenants Carl Boyd,. H. H. Broadhurst,

J. G. Quekemeyer, J. K. Herr, J. A. Shannon, W. C. F. Nicholson.

  1. From Field Artillery-Captains R. W. Briggs, D. F. Craig, and A. B. Warfield. First Lieutenants C. G. Mortimer,

D. C. Cubbison, E. DeL. Smith, Rene De R. Hoyle and J. W. Downer.

The Second Year Class was composed of Captain H. R. Richmond; First Lieutenants Eben Swift, J”r., I. S. Martin and Second Lieutenant J. C. Montgomery.

The program differed from that of 1909 in that, with the exception of Pioneer Duties and Explosives, all subjects not relating directly to the horse were dropped. It was also found advisable, at the end of the year, to discontinue the Second Year Course. The large absentee list in all regiments was considered a good reason for not making the course longer than one year for any student. The detail of two assistant instructors in the department of equitation made it unnecessary to have any student officers taking a postgraduate course.

June 1, 1910, an instruction camp for mounted militia officers was held at Fort Riley and First Lieutenant Sherrard

2.62 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY .

Coleman, Eighth Cavalry, with a detachment of cooks from the School, had charge of the messing of all the officers pres­ent.

Construction in 1910 included the following buildings: Teamsters’ quarters (187. Now the quartermaster barracks), a set of quarters for civilian employees ( 189. Northwest of Waters Hall) , the two sets of apartment buildings known as West Flats (18 5 and 186) , the artillery post exchange and gymnasium (191) and the isolation hospital (179) .

Brigadier-General F. K. Ward was relieved as Commandant December 4, 1910, and Colonel George K. Hunter was Acting Commandant from December 5, 1910, to January 10, 1911. Brigadier-General W. S. Schuyler became Commandant January 10, 1911. and was relieved March 20, 1911. when Colonel C. W. Foster, Sixth Field Artillery, became Acting Commandant and served as such until March 20th, when Lieutenant-Colonel James Lockett, Cavalry, was detailed as Commandant.

Major George H. Cameron was relieved as Assistant Commandant October 22, 1910, by Captain W. C. Short. March 20, 1911, the position of Assistant Commandant was abolished and Captain Short again became the Senior Instructor in Equitation. During the time that Captain Short was Assistant Commandant, First Lieutenant Gordon Johnston was Senior Instructor in Equitation.

Captain Tilman Campbell was relieved as Assistant in the Training School for Bakers and Cooks November 22, 1910.

Captain A. N. McClure was relieved from duty in charge of the Training School for Farriers and Horseshoers June 30, 1911, by First Lieutenant Ben Lear, Jr. First Lieutenant George M. Lee, Cavalry, was made an Assistant in this School December 17, 1910.

The student officers were as follows:

  1. From the Cavalry-First Lieutenants C. W. Cole, Ben Lear, Jr., Frank Keller, E. J. Pike, W. S. Martin, Rodman Butler, E. A. Keyes, H. E. Mann, C. A. Bach, A. F. Commis­ key, and F. P. Lahm. Second lieutenants T. F. Van Natta, Jr., E. F. Graham, George Dillman, L. A. O’Donnell, H. W. Wagner, C. P. Chandler and Troup Miller.
  2. From the Field- Artillery-First Lieutenants W. S. Sturgill, A. L. Hall, G. H. Paine, L. P. Collins, W. C. Potter, and P. W. Booker. Second Lieutenant A. L. P. Sands.

In addition to the regular class of company officers, a class of field officers was sent to the School for a special course in equitation beginning April 1 and continuing until June 15, 1911. This class was composed of the following officers: Colonels Matthias W. Day and Hoel S. Bishop, Cavalry,

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 263

Lieutenant-Colonels G. H. G. Gale, A. P. Blocksom, J. A. Gaston, A. C. Macomb, Cavalry, and G. W. Van Deusen,

E. A. Millar, Field Artillery, Majors J. B. McDonald and John W. Heard, Cavalry. ,

At this time, the West Riding Hall was not heated, there was no isolation hospital for sick animals and these, with other improvements were requested. Captain Short, in his report, made the following recommendation: “It is recommended that instead of making these costly improvements at Fort Riley, the School be moved to. the neighborhood of Warrenton, Virginia, in a horse atmosphere and among good horses. There are many arguments in favor of such a change. The climate is much better for keeping horses, as the climate of Fort Riley, with its sudden changes, is very· dangerous to horses that have to do fast work. Horses do not do well here. Even if it were not contemplated to enlarge this post, the School is out of place here because the regiments feel that the School being here is an encroachment on their territory on account of scarcity of quarters and grounds, and every enlargement of the School is resented.

If the School was placed near Warrenton, the officers could live in the town as they do at Saumur and thus save much building. It could take advantage of the excellent country in that vicinity, and it would allow the students at stated intervals to take advantage of the excellent fox hunting behind the trained packs of that neighborhood. Hunting behind hounds in this country is without object, and only takes the student from his legitimate work.”

The Rasp made its first appearance in 1911. . The introduction by Captain Short stated: “This, the first Annual of the Mounted Service School. is well named in that the ‘rasp’ is used more than the pen at Riley.” Walter S. Sturgill was Editor-in-Chief and his Assistants were Ben Lear, G. H. Paine, F. P. Lahm, L. P. Collins and L.A. O’Donnell. Chris­ tian A. Bach was Business Manager and W. S. Martin was his Assistant.

The Rasp this year was prepared along the lines of a college annual with pictures and sketches of each member of the class, a “grind” section, etc. Some of the grinds are worthy of repetition. Concerning Ben Lear it states, “King rose to fame one morning in the horseshoeing section-room when he said: ‘The bones of the foot are the Long Pastern, Short Pastern, Corona, Aparejo and Manta.’ “

“Dr. Plummer: ‘Mr. Sturgill, suppose a horse was stifled, what would you do?’

“Doc: ‘I’d try to push it back in place and if I were not strong enough, then I’d blister it.’ “

264 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

“Swifty (W. S. Martin) (admiring the newly-arrived colt): ‘What is it, a gelding?'”

“Mr. Churchill. while making a shoe for class demonstration, dips his hammer into water and rubs· it around on his anvil to give, as he explains to two or three student officers, a smooth finish to the shoe. In the meantime, someone asks Captain McClure the reason for the water. He carefully bites off a piece of ‘Navy twist’. bats his eye, and informs the class that it is to cool the hammer and anvil.”

Among the horses being ridden at this time were such well known names as Denominator, Mirasol. Sin Glen, Aeroplane, Virginia Creeper, Scioptic, Deceive and Santa Claus.

A team composed of Captains George Vidmer, Guy V. Henry and Lieutenants Gordon Johnston, E. F. Graham and

A. R. Chaffee was sent to the Olympia International Horse Show in London, for the first time, in 1911.

There was a Camp of Instruction for officers of the mounted branches of the Organized Militia of the United States at Fort Riley, June I to 15, 1911. and a Maneuver Camp in August.

The Packer’s Camp (Building 191) was the only building erected in I 911.

Publication of the Guidon ceased when the Seventh Cavalry left the Post in February. I 911. It was being published at that time by a man named Powers, the Regimental Sergeant Major, and after his departure neither the Thirteenth Cavalry nor the School continued the paper.

The first airplane to make a local flight was an old­ fashioned Curtis type plane bought by Herman and Henry Wetzig of Junction City in 19 I I. The propeller was in rear and the pilot sat out in space, supported by a framework of bamboo. The plane made one or two flights over the reservation and was flown at fairs all over the country.

Lieutenant Danford was relieved as Secretary by Captain Edward Davis, 13th Cavalry, June 17. 1912. Captain Short was relieved by Captain Guy V. Henry as Senior Instructor in Equitation in September, 1911. Captain Coleman was relieved as assistant to the officer in charge, School for Bakers and Cooks. by First Lieutenant L. L. Deitrick, in the fall of 1911. Lieutenant Deitrick was made a captain and left the School in June, 1912, and First Lieutenant J. S. E. Young, Ninth Cavalry, was made an assistant in October, 1911. Lieutenants Gordon Johnston, J. C. Montgomery, and E. F. Graham was relieved from duty at the School. Captain

H. R. Richmond reported for duty as Assistant Instructor in Equitation August 18, 1912. First Lieutenant E. L. Gruber, 5th F. A.. was ordered to report upon completion of his

(Photo loaned by Zellner, Junction City)

A Cavalry Trooper. of the Nineties

(Photo loaned by Zellner, Junction City)

Forsyth Place in 1890

Officers-Left to Right-Capt. W. S. Edgerly; 2nd Lieut. S. R. H. Tompkins; Capt. Charles Ilsley. Children in pony cart-Madeline Whiteside, Fenlon Nicholson.

(The writer was uni.hie to identify the boy standing beside the cart),

266 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

detail as student at the Military Riding Institute at Hanover, Germany, and Second Lieutenant A. R. Chaffee, Jr., was also ordered to report September I, 1912. Veterinarian Charles

H. Jewell was relieved by Veterinarian Wilfred J. Stokes, June 12, 1912.

Doctor Jewell served seven years as an instructor, was commissioned when the Veterinary Corps was formed, served through the World War in France with distinction, was retried January 23, 1923, as a Lieutenant Colonel, V. C., and is now living in Junction City, Kansas. He gave the writer many reminiscences of the days of his service at the School. At that time, Ogden Flats, where Camp Funston was later erected, was a slough affording excellent snipe and duck shooting. Pleas of the various commandants for an isolation hospital for animals were frequent after the Mounted Service School was established. These recommendations were well-founded and were probably based upon an epidemic of glanders that broke out in 1906. At that time an old ice house on the ”Island” was utilized as an isolation hospital. Many horses died during this epidemic. Colonel Jewell also related how a duel was nearly fought at Fort Riley when Major Galvez from Guatemala challenged Lieutenant Neri from Mexico because Neri expressed disdain and laughed at the major when he was policed in the riding hall. The crematory, erected in 1905, was operated for a time by “Doc” Kiernan after he left the School. The crematory was erected by a civilian firm with the understanding that, if it proved successful others would be constructed at various posts but it was found to be impracticable as the consumption of fuel was too great for economical operation.

The Field Officers’ Course, from April 1 to June 15, was composed of the following: Lieutenant-Colonels F. 0. John­ son, W. C. Brown, P. E. Trippe; Majors T. B. Dugan, G. H. MacDonald, DeR. C. Cabell, Grote Hutcheson, J. B. Hughes, Arthur Thayer, W. H. Hay, A. L. Dade, C. A. Hedekin and

J. P. Ryan, all officers of cavalry. Lieutenant Colonel Ernest Hinds was the only Field Artillery officer in the class.

The Company Officers’ Class consisted of the following:

l. From the Cavalry-Captains W. D. Forsyth, J. J. Boniface, H. N. Cootes, W. H. Clopton, Jr., First Lieutenants

A. S. Perkins, J. A. Pearson, W.R. Pope, W. H. Neill, H. T. Bull. Dorsey R. Rodney, C. B. Amoiy, Jr., H. R. Adair,

A. H. Wilson, C. L. Scott; Second Lieutenants W. N. Hens­ ley, Jr., Berkeley T. Merchant, Donald A. Robinson, C. L. Stevenson, H. L. Watson, Abbott Boone, W. L. Moose, Jr.,

A. L. James, Jr., A. E. Wilbourn, Nathan C. Shiverick.

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 267

  1. Artillery-First Lieutenants Frank Thorp, Jr., C. P. George, Jr., Joe R. Brabson.
  2. Engineers-First Lieutenant Robert S. Thomas.

In order to obtain officers prepared to act as instructors in equitation in the various regiments it was recommended that the second year course be again instituted.

Field Bakery No. 2 was established in 1912 and located at

the School. •

From June 23 to July 5, a Camp of Instruction for batteries of Field Artillery of the organized militia was held on the reservation. Six batteries of militia and six batteries of the Sixth Field Artillery attended the camp.

In the summer of 1912, Captains Guy V. Henry, Ben Lear, Jr., and Lieutenants J. C. Montgomery and E. F. Graham went to Sweden and competed in the Olympic Riding Competitions at Stockholm. The horses taken were Chiswell, Deceive, Connie, Poppy, Fencing Girl and Bazan (owned by Captain Henry) . This team won third place in the Military Competition and the detailed account of the training, competition, etc., of the team, written for the 1913 Rasp is well worth reading.

The 1912 Rasp was a much larger and more complete volume than the first one and contained several interesting articles. It was dedicated to August Belmont.

During 1912 there were several fires of rather mysterious origin on the Post. Part of the superstructure of the Engineer Bridge was destroyed by dynamite one night, but was promptly repaired.

Among the horses of the School in 1912 were Donnez-Moi. Diffident, Elko, Kid, Timpanium, Little Joe, Eucant, High Diver, Soldier, Ariny Booth, Little John, Santa Claus, Tillson and Denominator.

Colonel Lockett was relieved from duty as Commandant March 23, 1913, and Colonel Joseph A. Gaston, Cavalry, became Commandant March 25, 1913. Captain W. D. Forsyth was Acting Commandant March 24-25, 1913. (Author’s note: At this time the position of Commandant of the Mounted Service School was separate from that of Post Commander).

· Captain Edward Davis was relieved from duty as Secretary December 15, l 912, by First Lieutenant Leroy P. Collins, Fourth Field Artillery.

The Instructors in the School of Equitation for 1913 were: Senior Instructor, Captain Guy V. Henry; Instructors, Captain W. D. Forsyth, First Lieutenant J. G. Quekemeyer and Second Lieutenant Wm. L. Moose. Captain H. R. Richmond

268 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

and First Lieutenants E. L. Gruber, I. S. Martin, A. H. Wilson and A. R. Chaffee were relieved during the year.

Captain Ralph T. Ward, C. of E., was Instructor in Pioneer Duties and Demolitions.

First Lieutenant Frank Keller was in charge of the School for Farriers and Horseshoers, with Veterinarian W. J. Stokes, Sixth F. A., and Regimental Commissary Sergeant Peter F. Meade, M. S. S. Detachment, as Instructors. First Lieutenant George M. Lee and Veterinarian Alexander Plummer were relieved and Mr. F. G. Churchill resigned, during the year.

Captain E. S. Wheeler, Q. M. C., was in charge of the School for Bakers and Cooks although sent to Galveston, Texas, February 22, 1913, with Field Bakery No. 2. First Lieutenant J. F. Taulbee was temporarily in charge after August 5, 1913. Captain C. A. Bach was relieved December

I. 1912. Captain N. E. Wood, F. A., was in charge from

February 22 to April 23, 1913, and Captain G. F. Hamilton,

Q. M. C., from April 23, 1913, to August 5, 1913.

Two classes of field officers attended the School. The first from October 10 to December 20, 1912, was composed of Lieutenant-Colonel S. D. Sturgis, F. A., and the following officers of cavalry: Majors R. D. Walsh, G. 0. Cress, Sedg­ wick Rice, E. S. Wright, P. D. Lochridge, J. S. Winn, Guy Preston, Edward Anderson, W. T. Littebrant, Michael Mc­ Namee, Ralph Harrison.

The second class of field officers, April 1 to May 31, 1913, consisted of Major W. D. Newbill, F. A., and the following Majors of Cavalry: W. A. Holbrook, R. E. L. Michie, G. L. Byram, S. H. Elliot, Robert L. Howze and W. F. Clark.

The Company Officers’ Class consisted of the following: officers: From Cavalry-Captains Ola Bell, 0. A. McGee and W. R. Taylor; First Lieutenants F. G. Turner, V. S. Foster,

G. E. Nelson, A. G. Hixson, W. W. West, Jr.; Second Lieutenants R. H. Kimball, Sloan Doak, J. T. Kennedy, W. H. Garrison, Jr., W. W. Erwin, Joseph Plassmeyer, Jr., E. R. Van Deusen.

2. Field Artillery-First Lieutenants H. S. Kilbourne, Jr.,

H. S. Naylor, T. G. Gottschalk, William McCleave; Second Lieutenant R. C. F. Goetz.

First Lieutenant John A. Barry failed to complete the course on account of an injury received from the kick of a horse.

The Second year Class was composed of First Lieutenants Ben Lear, C. L. Scott, B. T. Merchant and Second Lieutenant

J. G. Quekemeyer. Lieutenant Quekemeyer was the only one to complete the course, the others having been relieved on account of detached service status.

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 269

In his report, Colonel Gaston stated that during the coming year there would be 67 officers on duty at the School including the faculty, first and second year and field officers’ classes and in the Flats, Carr Hall and Arnold Hall there were quarters for 31 officers, leaving no quarters for 36 officers. He called attention to the I 911 report and renewed the recommendation made therein that the School proper be moved to some point in Virginia.

The work of the Second Year Class in Equitation was a continuation of that given the Company Officers and the students were also placed in charge of various stabl s. pastures, etc. Theoretical work consisted of reading works on equitation and general horse subjects and then discussing them with the instructors. The members of this class also participated in the National Horse Show at New York.

A pack train stable (Building 197) was the only building erected in 1913.

Colonel Gaston was relieved as Commandant May 2, 1914, and Captain H. R. Richmond was Acting Commandant from that date until August 15, 1914. Major C. D. Rhodes, Fifteenth Cavalry, became Commandant August 16, 1914.

Lieutenant Collins was relieved as Secretary April 25, 1914, • and Lieutenant Patton was Secretary until July 31 when Lieu­ tenant I. P. Swift assumed the duties of that office.

Captains Henry and Forsyth and Lieutenants Quekemeyer and Moose were relieved from duty as Instructors in the Department of Equitation during the year. Captain Richmond was the Senior Instructor, with Lieutenant Hayden Wagner as Instructor. .

Second Lieutenant G. S. Patton, Jr., reported for duty as Master of the Sword, July 7, 1913, after having taken instruction work at Saumur, France.

In the School for Farriers and Horseshoers, Lieutenant Kel­ ler was relieved May I, 1914, by Lieutenant Patton, who was in charge until July 31, when Lieutenant John A. Degen became the officer in charge. Veterinarian Wilfred J. Stokes, Sixth Field Artillery, was Instructor in Farriery throughout the year. Veterinarian Ray J. Stanclift, Fifteenth Cavalry, reported for duty July 30, 1914, and Veterinarian Olaf Schwarzkopf, Third Cavalry, was Instructor in Hippology from October IO, 1913, to May 22, 1914.

Captains Kilbreth and Lloyd, Sixth Field Artillery, Cowin

Q. M. C., and Lieutenants Keller, Taulbee, Koch and Patt9n were, at various times, throughout the year, temporarily in charge of the School for Bakers and Cooks. Captain John J. Ryan, Q. M. C., took charge of that School August I. 1914.

270 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

A field officers’ class attended the School from October 10 to December 20, 1913. It was composed of Lieutenant­ Colonel T. R. Rivers and Majors Farrand Sayre, Malvern-Hill Barnum, M. C. Butler, J. J. Hornbrook, W. T. Johnston,

C. C. Smith, all of Cavalry. Captain G. J. Oden was detailed as a member of this class but transferred, in November, to the company officers’ class. Majors 0. W. B. Farr, Fifth Field Artillery, and Captain J. M. Coffin. Medical Corps were also members of this class.

The following officers completed the company officers’ course: Captains J. N. Munro, C. S. Haight, W. A. Cornell, First Lieutenants J. A. Degen, G. A. F. Trumbo, R. F. Tate,

L. W. Prunty, J. A. Barry, H. R. Smalley; Second Lieutenants

·W. C. McChord, Jr., R. E. Cummins, S. 0. Elting, F. K. Ross, J. A. Warden, G. S. Patton, Jr., G. W. McClelland,

J. C. F. Tillson, Jr., C. M. Havercamp, all of Cavalry. First Lieutenants R. F. Waring, J. A. Crame, A. K. C. Palmer; Second Lieutenants H. Hayden, B. R. Peyton of Field Artillery and Second Lieutenant E. S. Harrison of Coast Artillery also completed this course.

The following were graduates of the Second Year Class: Captain L. R. Ball, First Lieutenants J. R. Taulbee, Stanley Koch, Second Lieutenant Sloan Doak, Cavalry, and First Lieutenants L. P. Collins and W. C. Potter, Field Artillery. First Lieutenant B. T. Merchant joined the class February 26, 1914, to complete the course.

On account of the situation on the Border, all classes were graduated April 25, 1914. in accordance with instructions from the War Department and part of the permanent personnel of the School was relieved at the same time.

· Waters Hall was utilized as quarters for bachelor officers and, as there was a shortage of officers’ quarters for students, Major Rhodes recommended the erection of three flat buildings to accommodate twelve married officers.

He also recommended that the School for Bakers and Cooks be· separated from the Mounted Service School and administered directly by the Quartermaster Corps and that it was important that the War Department settle once and for all whether or not the Mounted Service School should be retained at its present location, or removed to some eastern site.

During the year, the members of the Second Year Class were sent to horse shows at Kansas City, Denver and Madison Square Garden.

  • March 23, 1914, Number Three Stables was destroyed by fire with a loss of twenty-nine schooled horses, four polo ponies and six private mounts. Among the very few horses

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 271

saved was Vestibule, a thoroughbred stallion donated to the School by August Belmont.

Lieutenant Degen, the officer in charge of the School for Farriers and Horseshoers, recommended that the grade of Stable Sergeant be substituted for that of Farrier in the Cavalry. He stated: “It has been reported that in some instances the work of graduates of the farrier classes has been handicapped by their not having the authority of noncommissioned officers when in contact with the other stable men. Every consideration makes the grade of Stable Sergeant desirable and necessary. in the Field Artillery applies with equal force in the cavalry.” (Author’s note: A farrier was, as near as can be defined, a troop veterinarian. His duties were separate and distinct from that of a horseshoer) .

The Rasp for 1914 was a very complete volume. It contained many articles on horses. horsemanship, racing, etc., by authorities.

A brief extract from an article in this Rasp, by Brigadier­ General Hugh L. Scott, is considered of sufficient interest to be incorporated in this work: “When, in the old times, a command got 700 miles from the railroad and a played out horse was shot by the rear guard to keep him out of the hands of the Indians, the rider was afoot 700 miles from home in a primeval country, where horses were not to be gathered like berries from the bushes. The rider and his officers, therefore, practiced every device to keep the horses strong and serviceable, and great skill was attained at it. This is an art which cannot be taught in a riding school or by riding in a

-park. In the riding school. The pupil is encouraged to ride around for an hour or more at a rapid gait, turning and twisting his animal this way and that in the various evolutions of training and supplying. If the horse is off his feed, a different horse is brought in the next day, and the rider never finds out that, if he were to treat his horse the same way in campaign, he would soon be afoot. This is also true of the park rider. The conservation of the cavalry horse in campaign is a different art and one of which we hear next to nothing.”

Two buildings were erected in 1914, the quartermaster laundry (109) and the pack train blacksmith shop (19 8) .

Lieutenant Swift served as Secretary until July I. 1915, when he was detailed as an Instructor in Equitation and First Lieutenant John A. Crane, Fifth Field Artillery, became Secretary.

First Lieutena·nt E. L. Gruber, F. A., was an Instructor in Equitation until January 15, 1915, when he was relieved. Lieutenant Merchant was ordered to join a troop for a period

272 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

of service July I. 1915, and then to resume his duties as Instructor in Equitation. Lieutenants Wagner and Doak were relieved as instructors in June, I 915. Lieutenant J. C. Mont­gomery was detailed as an instructor upon relief from duty in the Philippine Islands and Lieutenant John T. Kennedy, Sixth Cavalry, was detailed as an instructor upon completion of the Second Year Course.

Lieutenant Patton was relieved as Master of the Sword June 30, I 9 I 5, and Lieutenant H. M. Rayner was appointed Instructor in Swordsmanship.

Captain John J. Ryan, Q. M. C., was in charge of the

School for Bakers and Cooks until July 10. 19 I 5. when he was relieved by Captain F. J. Herman. Q. M. C.

There were two classes for field officers during the year. Each course was of ten weeks’ duration and the fall class was composed of: Lieutenant Colonel Guy Carleton; Majors L. M. Koehler, R. H. Tompkins, C. D. Rhodes, C. B. Meyer,

s:

E. D. Anderson. G. P. White, J. W. Furlong: Captain W. H. Paine, all of Cavalry, with Major H. G. Bishop and Captain

F. H. Gallup of Field Artillery.

The officers making up the fall class were: Majors H. P. Howard, W. J. Glasgow, E. L. Phillips: Captains J. H. Reeves, G. W. Kirkpatrick, J. M. Morgan, Cavalry, and Major

R. H. McMaster, Field Artillery.

In the Second Year Class, the following were listed as graduates: First Lieutenants V. S. Foster, J. A. Barry, S. W. Winfree, Emil Engel. H. R. Adair, W. W. West, Jr., J. T. Kennedy; Second Lieutenant G. S. Patton, Jr., Cavalry, and First Lieutenants C. P. George, Jr., and J. A. Crane, Field. Artillery.

The graduates of the First Year Course were:

l. Cavalry-Captains R. C. Foy, C. G. Harvey, and W. J. Scott; First Lieutenants R. W. Walker, J. T. Donnelly, D. H. Scott, H. W. Baird, S. W. Scofield. R. M. Cheney, and J. K. Brown: Second Lieutenants S. M. Williams, E. G. Cullum, Herman Kobbe, H. H. McGee, E. W. Taulbee, H. D. Chamberlain. Harding Polk, Everett Collins, J. C. R. Schwenck and H. M. Rayner.

  1. Field Artillery-Captains Samuel Frankenberger and

N. B. Rehkopf: First Lieutenants Marshall Magruder, F. W. Stewart and Herman Erlenkotter: Second Lieutenants H. R. Odell. N. G. Finch and V. P. (“Little Red”) Erwin.

  1. Infantry-First Lieutenant T. J. Johnson and Second Lieutenant T. C. Lonergan.

The regulations for the School were changed in 1913 to provide for the detail of a non-commissioned officers’ class and the first class of thirteen men was detailed by the War Department

THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY 273

for a six months course beginning October I. 1914. While originally detailed for instruction in swordsmanship, their course was developed to include equitation and elementary horseshoeing and hippology.

Since this was the first non-commissioned officers’ class to be graduated from the School, the names of its members may be of interest. The class was composed of: First Sergeant Lushion Darrah, 13th Cavalry; Sergeants John Mackay, 1st Cavalry, B. D. Slayton, 2d Cavalry, J. T. Bessig, 3rd Cavalry, Wm. Wendell, 6th Cavalry, E. S. Washington, 10th Cavalry,

M. L. Margulies, 11th Cavalry, Rudolph Baer, 14th Cavalry,

F. J. White, 15th Cavalry; Corporals H. K. Smith, 9th Cavalry and A. H. Moore, 12th Cavalry.

The following extract from the Report of the Commandant for 19 I 5 is of interest: “Careful consideration of the question during the past year from every viewpoint leads the Commandant to believe that it would be a serious mistake to remove the School from Fort Riley. No military reservation in the country offers such varied and splendid opportunities for military cross country riding; the purchase price of a sim­ilar tract of land in the East would be prohibitive; the lease of such a tract would be attended, sooner or later, with complications as to claims for damages, gradual increases in rental. and possible pressure on the government to ·acquire tracts at exorbitant prices. The climate of Kansas permits several months of valuable mid-winter riding hall work, which should be a very necessary part of the regular course of instruction in even a more temperate climate. Experience has shown, too, that attendance upon horse shows, and the like, is a more valuable function of graduates of the school than of undergraduates, whose experience is limited, and whose steady progress would surely suffer through constant or even occasional interruptions in the prearranged curriculum.”

For the past few years, some horses had been furnished the school by various regiments and concerning those furnished in the summer of I 91 4, Captain Richmond stated: “Grateful acknowledgement is here made of the immense assistance these horses have been in replacing those lost in the fire which destroyed No. 3 Stable, and in taking the places of those old soldiers like Hilly, Warren, Santa Claus, Clumsy, and others who are now entitled to withdraw gradually and with dign-ity from the tremendous labors they have endured the past ten years.

“Hill and Warren died during the past year. Santa Claus and Clumsy are still fit as a fiddle and sound as a dollar. It is the intention next year not to use Santa Claus in the regular class except ‘now and then’ when other means of per-

274 THE HISTORY OF FORT RILEY

suasion have failed to convince a doubting student officer. Clumsy is a Field Officers’ horse–dearly beloved by them, for qualities that are rare and prized.”

Concerning the purchasing of horses, Captain Richmond stated: “Officers purchasing horses might well adopt the methods of Xenophen who said that in purchasing a horse one should have led him forth from his stall with his covers on him and thus clothed to examine well his feet and legs. If the feet and legs are found to be not satisfactory the removal of the covers should not be permitted, lest beauty of form and grace of carriage tempt one to purchase him, notwithstanding his fatal and insurmountable defects.”

It was recommended by Captain Degen that the amount of practical work in the course in Horseshoeing for officers be decreased and that more time be devoted to instruction in­ inspection of shoeing.

The new stable to replace the loss of Number Three Stable was nearly completed by the end of the year (Building 138) and the Post Bakery was remodeled, the pastry kitchen and flour testing apparatus having been installed in that building. Lieutenant Crane served as Secretary until May I. 1916, when he was relieved by Lieutenant J. C. Montgomery, Four­teenth Cavalry.

Captain Richinond remained in Charge of the School of Equitation and the Instructors were First Lieutenants Montgomery, I. P. Swift, Merchant and Kennedy. Lieutenant Rayner was Master of the Sword. Captain Degen was relieved from duty with the School for Farriers and Horseshoers by Lieutenant I. S. Martin in September, 1915. Veterinarians Stanclift and Stokes were Instructors. Captain Herman was in charge of the School for Bakers and Cooks.

Pursuant to instructions from the War Department in September, 1915, the Bakers and Cooks School was discontinued as a part of the Mounted Service School and was established at Fort Riley under direction of the Post Commander, retaining the same instruction personnel and utilizing the equipment on hand.

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