Amelia Courthouse, Va., April 4, 1864
This battle occurred during the Appomattox Campaign, which was the final campaign of the Civil War. The campaign lasted from March 29 to April 9, 1865, and during that time, there were several significant battles, including the Battle of Amelia Courthouse.
On the morning of April 4, 1865, Union forces under the command of General George Meade and General Philip Sheridan reached Amelia Courthouse, Virginia. The Union forces were pursuing General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate army, which was retreating westward towards Appomattox Court House. The Confederate army had stopped at Amelia Courthouse to rest and resupply, but their supplies had been delayed, leaving them without food or ammunition.
General Lee had hoped to resupply his army at Amelia Courthouse, but when he arrived, he found that the supplies he had been expecting were not there. As a result, the Confederate army was forced to continue their retreat without the necessary provisions.
When the Union forces arrived at Amelia Courthouse, they found a large number of Confederate soldiers who were tired and hungry, but still determined to continue the fight. The Union forces attacked the Confederates and engaged them in a fierce battle. The fighting was intense, and both sides suffered heavy losses.
Despite their best efforts, the Confederate soldiers were eventually forced to retreat. The Union forces pursued them relentlessly, and by the following day, the Confederate army had been cut off and surrounded at Appomattox Court House. On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered his army to General Ulysses S. Grant, effectively ending the Civil War.
The Battle of Amelia Courthouse was a significant battle because it played a crucial role in the final days of the Civil War. The defeat at Amelia Courthouse deprived General Lee’s army of much-needed supplies and allowed the Union forces to catch up with them and force their surrender. The battle marked the beginning of the end for the Confederacy, and it ultimately led to the reunification of the United States.
THE OPPOSING FORCES IN THE APPOMATTOX CAMPAIGN.
CAVALRY, Maj.-Gen. Philip H. Sheridan.
ARMY OF THE SHENANDOAH, Brig.-Gen. Wesley Merritt.
FIRST DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. Thomas C. Devin.
- First Brigade, Col. Peter Stagg:
- 1st Mich., Lieut.-Col. George R. Maxwell, Capt. Edward L. Negus
- 5th Mich., Lieut.-Col. Smith H. Hastings
- 6th Mich., Lieut.-Col. Harvey H. Vinton
- 7th Mich., Lieut.-Col. George G. Briggs
- Second Brigade, Col. Charles L. Fitzhugh:
- 6th N. Y., Maj. Harrison White
- 9th N. Y., Maj. James R. Dinnin
- 19th N. Y. (1st N. Y. Dragoons), Maj. Howard M. Smith
- 17th Pa., Lieut.-Col. Coe Durland
- 20th Pa., Lieut.-Col. Gabriel Middleton
- Third (Reserve) Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Alfred Gibbs:
- 2d Mass., Col. Casper Crowninshield
- 6th Pa. (6 co’s), Col. Charles I. Leiper
- 1st U. S., Capt. Richard S. C. Lord
- 5th U. S., Capt. Thomas Drummond, Lieut. Gustavus Urban
- 6th U. S., Maj. Robert M. Morris
- Artillery : C and E, 4th U. S., Capt. Marcus P. Miller.
THIRD DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. George A. Custer, Col. Alexander C. M. Pennington :
- 1st Conn., Col. Brayton Ives
- 3d N. J., Lieut.-Col. William P. Robeson, Jr.
- 2d N. Y., Col. Alanson M. Randol
- 2d Ohio, Lieut.-Col. A. Bayard Nettleton
Second Brigade, Col. William Wells:
- 8th N. Y., Maj. James Bliss
- 15th N. Y., Col. John J. Coppinger
- 1st Vt., Lieut.-Col. Josiah Hall
Third Brigade, Col. Henry Capehart:
- 1st N. Y., Lieut.-Col. Jenyns C. Battersby
- 1st W. Va., Maj. Shesh B. Howe, Lieut.-Col. Charles E. Capehart
- 2d W. V a., Lieut.-Col. James Allen
- 3d W. Va., Maj. John S. Witcher
SECOND Division (Army of the Potomac), Maj.-Gen. George Crook:
First Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Henry E. Davies:
- 1st N. J., Col. Hugh H. Janeway, Maj. Walter R. Robbins
- 10th N. Y., Col. M. Henry Avery
- 24th N. Y ., Col. Walter C. Newberry, Lieut.-Col. Melzer Richards, Maj. William A. Snyder
- ist Pa. (5 co’s), Maj. Hampton S. Thomas
- A, 2d U. S. Art’y, Lieut. James H. Lord
Second Brigade, Col. J. Irvin Gregg, Capt. Samuel B. M. Young:
- 4th Pa., Lieut.-Col. Alender P. Duncan
- 8th Pa., Lieut.-Col. William A. Corrie
- 16th Pa., Lieut.-Col. John K. Robison, Maj. William H. Fry
- 21st Pa., Col. Oliver B. Knowles
- H and I, 1st U. S. Art’y (detached with Art’y Brigade, 9th Corps), Lieut. Chandler P. Eakin
Third Brigade, Col. Charles H. Smith:
- Fist Me., Lieut.-Col. Jonathan P. Cilley
- 2d N. Y., Mounted Rifles, Maj. Paul Chadbourne, Col. John Fisk
- 6th Ohio, Capt. Matthew H. Cryer, Capt. Frank C. Loveland
- 13th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Stephen R. Clark
ARMY OF THE JAMES, Maj.-Gen. Edward O. C. Ord:
- Headquarters Guard: D, 3d Pa. Art’y, Capt. Edwin A. Evans; I, 3d Pa. Art’y, Capt: Osbourn Wattson
- Engineers: 1st N. Y., Col. James F. Hall
- Pontoniers: I, 3d Mass. Art’y, Capt. John Pickering, Jr.
- Unattached Cavalry: I, L, and M, 4th Mass., Col. Francis Washburn; 5th Mass. (colored), Col. Charles F. Adams, Jr.; 7th N. Y. (1st Mounted Rifles), Col. Edwin V. Sumner
DEFENSES OF BERMUDA HUNDRED, Maj. Gen. George L. Hartsuff:
INFANTRY Division Brig.-Gen. Edward Ferrero
- First Brig.-Gen. Gilbert H. McKibbin: 41st N. Y., Lieut.-Col. Detleo von Einsiedel; 103d N. Y., Capt. William Redlick; 2d Pa., H. Art’y, Maj. Benjamin F. Winger; 104th Pa., Lieut.-Col. Theophilus Kephart
- Second Brigade, Col. George C. Kibbe: 6th N. Y. H. Art’y, Lieut.-Col. Stephen Baker; 10th N. Y. H. Art’y, Lieut.-Col. G. de Peyster Arden
- Artillery: 33d N. Y., Capt. Alger M. Wheeler
ARTILLERY: A and H, 13th N. Y. Heavy, Capt. Wm. Pendrell; 7th N. Y., Lieut. Martin V McIntyre; E, 3d Pa. Heavy, Capt. Erskine H. Miles; M, 3d Pa. Heavy, Lieut. Sylvester W. Marshall
SEPARATE BRIGADE, Brig.-Gen. Joseph B. Carr:
- FORT POCAHONTAS, Lieut.-Col. Ashbel W. Angel: 38th N. J. (4 co’s), Maj. William H. Tantum; D, 20th N. Y. Cav., Capt. Wayland F. Ford; E, 16th N. Y. H. Art’y, Capt. John W. Hees; H, 16th N. Y. H. Art’y, Capt. Henry C. Thompson; I, 184th N. Y., Capt. George Wetmore
- HARRISON’S LANDING, Col. Wardwell G. Robinson: / 184th N. Y., Lieut.-Col. William P. McKinley; I, 1st U. S. Colored Cav., Lieut. Horace Hudson
- Fort Powhatan, Col. William J. Sewell: 38th N. J. (6 co’s), Col. William J. Sewell; F, 20th N. Y. Cav., Lieut. John C. Pollard; detachment 3d Pa. H. Art’y, Lieut. Frederick Grill; E, 1st U. S. Colored Cav., Capt. Charles W. Emerson
TWENTY-FOURTH ARMY CORPS, Maj.-Gen. John Gibbon:
- Headquarters Guard, Capt. Charles E. Thomas: F, 4th Mass. Cav., Capt. Joseph J. Baker; K, 4th Mass. Capt Capt. Charles E. Thomas
THIRD DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. Charles Devens, Jr:
- First Brigade, Col. Edward H. Ripley: 11th Conn., Maj. Charles Warren; 13th N. H., Lieut.-Col. Normand Smith; 81st N. Y., Capt. Matthew T. Betton; 98th N. Y., Lieut.-Col. William Kreutzer; 139th N. Y., Maj. Theodore Miller; 19th Wis., Maj. Samuel K. Vaughan
- Second Brigade, Col. Michael T. Donohoe: 8th Conn., Maj. William M. Pratt; 5th Md., Lieut.-Col. William W. Bamberger; 10th N. H., Capt. Warren M. Kelley; 12th N. H., Lieut.Col. Thomas E. Barker; 96th N. Y., Capt. George W. Hindes; 118th N. Y., Lieut.-Col. Levi S. Dominy; 9th Vt., Lieut.-Col. Valentine G. Barney
- Third Brigade, Col. Samuel H. Roberts: 21st Conn., Lieut.-Col. James F. Brown; 40th Mass., Lieut.-Col. John Pollack; 2d N. H., Lieut.-Col. Joab N. Patterson; 58th Pa.., Lieut.-Col. Cecil Clay; 188th Pa., Lieut.-Col. George K. Bowen
INDEPENDENT DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. John W. Turner:
- First Brigade, Lieut.-Col. Andrew Potter: 34th Mass., Capt. Frank T. Leach; 116th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Wilbert B. Teters; 123d Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Horace Kellogg
- Second Brigade, Col. William B. Curtis: 23d Ill., Capt. Patrick M. Ryan; 54th Pa., Lieut: Col. Albert P. Moulton; 12th W. Va., Capt. Erastus G. Bartlett
- Third Brigade, Col. Thomas M. Harris: 10th W. Va., Capt. Marshal W. Coburn; 11th W. Va., Maj. Michael A. Ayers; 15th W. Va., Lieut.-Col. John W. Holliday
ARTILLERY, Maj. Charles C. Abell:
- E, 3d N. Y., Capt. George E. Ashby
- H, 3d N. Y., Capt. Enoch Jones
- K, 3d N. Y., Capt. James R. Angel
- M, 3d N. Y., Capt. John H. Howell
- 17th N. Y., Capt. George T. Anthony
- A, 1st Pa., Capt. William Stitt
- F, 1st R. I., Lieut. Charles E. Guild
- B, 1st U. S., Capt. Samuel S. Elder
- L, 4th U. S., Lieut. Henry C. Hasbrouck
- A, 5th U. S., Lieut. Charles P. Muhlenberg
- F, 5th U. S., Lieut. Henry B. Beecher
TWENTY-FIFTH ARMY CORPS (1), Maj.-Gen. Godfrey Weitzel:
- Provost Guard: E and H, 4th Mass. Cav., Maj. Atherton H. Stevens, Jr.
FIRST DIVISION, Brig.-Gen. August V. Kautz:
- First Brigade, Col. Alonzo G. Draper: 22d U. S., Lieut.Col. Ira C. Terry; 36th U. S., Lieut.-Col. Benjamin F. Pratt; 38th U. S., Col. Robert M. Hall; 118th U. S., Col. John C. Moon
- Second Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Edward A. Wild: 29th Conn., Col. William B. Wooster; 9th U. S., Col. Thomas Bayley; 115th U. S. (detached from 1st Brigade, 2d Division), Col. Robert H. Earnest; 117th U. S., Col. Lewis G. Brown
- Third Brigade, Brig.-Gen.
(1) The infantry was composed entirely of colored troops.